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Alexandria Archaeology Museum
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Alexandria Archaeology Bibliography

A-F

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Adams, Robert M. 

  • 1996 - Preliminary Archaeological Investigation of the Stonegate Development (Parcel C) West Braddock Road, City of Alexandria, Virginia. International Archaeological Consultants, Rawlins, Wyoming.

    Stonegate Parcel C (American Indian tool-making area; possible slave/tenant residence; Civil War encampment), 4600 West Braddock Road. 

    Archaeological survey and testing of the 13-acre project area revealed three periods of occupation. The discovery of a larger and, more importantly, undisturbed lithic assemblage indicated a longer or larger prehistoric occupation of Parcel C than adjacent Parcels A and B. The absence of building nails associated with the remains of the early to mid-19th-century residence pointed to either a house of log construction or the salvaging of materials for reuse. (Archaeologists noted the similarity to the Mark Center/Winkler Botanical Preserve slave/tenant residence, 44AX162 and 163.) Lastly, the few mid-19th-century artifacts were consistent with a Civil War-period encampment, perhaps associated with nearby Fort Ward. (Note: Researchers also should review the five other reports for Stonegate—four prior and one later—and the site report for Mark Center/Winkler Botanical Preserve [44AX162 and 163].)

     
  • 1996 - Report on R, F & P Potomac Yard – Track Relocation Project. International Archaeological Consultants, Hayes, Virginia.
  • More on Archaeology at Potomac Yard. 

  • 1996 - The Archaeological Investigation of the Former Preston Plantation and Alexandria Canal at Potomac Yard. Alexandria, Virginia. International Archaeological Consultants, Hayes, Virginia.

    Potomac Yard/Potomac Yard Center (residence; farm; cemetery; canal; railyard; United States Military Railroad, Civil War). 

    Before developing the project area into a retail center, archaeologists assessed the former location of the Alexander family’s Preston plantation and cemetery, dating to the early 1700s, and the Alexandria Canal (1843–1887). The cemetery’s burials were moved to Pohick Church in 1922. The area was graded in 1933 to accommodate a railyard, so the plantation and cemetery likely were leveled. The study area played a considerable role in rail transport. Its first line was completed in 1857, and used by the United States Military Railroad during the Civil War. By the turn of the 20th century, it contained probably the largest railway classification yard in the U.S. Unfortunately the area’s several uses were not visible in the highly disturbed soil. The historic topography had been removed through grading and filling so there were no cultural resources present. (Note: Researchers also should review the two other reports for Potomac Yard.)

     
  • 1994 - The Archaeological Investigation of the Undeveloped Upland Terraces in Mark Center, City of Alexandria, Virginia. International Archaeological Consultants, Rawlins, Wyoming. Public Summary 

    Mark Center/Winkler Botanical Preserve (American Indian tool-making site; slave/tenant residence), 1600 Beauregard Street, 44AX162 and 163. 

    Archaeological survey and testing of the 62-acre upland terraces resulted in an American Indian tool-making site (44AX163) and a 19th-century historic site (44AX162). Investigation of the prehistoric site produced few artifacts and no features. Excavation of the historic site uncovered a structure, built circa 1800 and destroyed by fire by 1870. Analysis of ceramics, bottle and window glass, nails, and personal items and diet through faunal remains indicated that the occupants were probably enslaved or tenants of George Hunter Terrett, a large land-owner. (Note: Researchers also should review the three other reports for Mark Center—two prior and one later.)

     
  • 1993 - The Archaeological Investigations of Two Storm Drain Corridors at the Stonegate Development, Alexandria, Virginia. International Archaeological Consultants, Rawlins, Wyoming.

    Stonegate Parcels A, B, and D (American Indian tool-making area; domestic area), 4600 West Braddock Road.

    Archaeologists explored two storm drain outfall corridors on 22 acres, discovering numerous lithic fragments as well as a small number of late 19th-century domestic materials such as ceramic, glass, and metal. The area contained no features and the soil was highly disturbed, making further excavation unnecessary prior to construction of the housing development. (Note: Researchers also should review the five later reports for Stonegate.)

     
  • 1991 - Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Upper and Lower Ponds at the Winkler Botanical Preserve, Alexandria, Virginia. International Archaeological Consultants, Rawlins, Wyoming.

    Mark Center/Winkler Botanical Preserve Upper and Lower Ponds (possible American Indian tool-making area), 1600 Beauregard Street.

    In surveying the project area, archaeologists unearthed one prehistoric artifact—a modified flake—and a few historic artifacts, including brick fragments and ceramic sherds. A previously registered site, 44AX12, lying partially within the survey area, yielded one lithic flake. (Note: Researchers also should review the three other site reports for Mark Center—one prior and two later.)

     

Adams, Robert M. [et al.] 

  • 1993 - Archaeological Investigations of the Stonegate Development (Including Sites 44AX31, AX166 and 167), City of Alexandria, Virginia. International Archaeological Consultants, Rawlins, Wyoming. Appendices A-C. Appendices D-MPublic Summary 

    Stonegate Parcels A, B, and D (American Indian base camp and tool-making site; residence), 4600 West Braddock Road, 44AX31, 166, and 167. 

    Before construction of the housing development, archaeologists investigated the 22-acre site, turning up two houses and an outbuilding. The structural remains dated from the mid-19th century to the 1950s. Also discovered were three undisturbed Late Archaic lithic scatters, representing three separate tool-manufacturing activities, plus Woodland (or perhaps earlier) cultural deposits along the creek floodplain. (Note: Researchers also should review the five other reports for Stonegate—one prior and four later.)

     

Alexandria Archaeology 

  • 1999 - A Community Digs Its Past: The Lee Street Site. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.
  • 1994 - Summary of Area A Archaeological Phase II Survey: Carlyle Project, Alexandria, Virginia. Prepared by Alexandria Archaeology, City of Alexandria, Virginia, for Alexandria Southern Properties, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 67

    Carlyle Project Area A, west of 1700 block of Duke Street at Holland Lane. 

    Alexandria Archaeology produced a summary of the work conducted by Tellus, Inc., for Norfolk Southern Properties in the Carlyle Project area. The area was divided into three units: Area A, Area B, and the Silver Leaf (Colored) Black Baptist Cemetery/African American Heritage Park (44AX136). Tellus completed a draft report on the cemetery and preliminary Phase II reports on blocks within Area A but no final reports. (A report on Area B was completed by another firm.) City archaeologists undertook an Area A summary. Area A included most of the land west of Holland Lane in Carlyle. In it were found prehistoric and historic deposits plus railroad features and a roundhouse. (Note: Researchers also should review the site reports for Silver Leaf (Colored) Black Baptist Cemetery/African American Heritage Park/Carlyle Project [44AX136], Alexandria Federal Courthouse [44AX164], Shuter’s Hill Brewery/Klein’s Brewery/Englehardt’s Brewery/Carlyle Project Area II-B [44AX35], United States Patent and Trademark Office/Carlyle Project Block F [44AX189], and Virginia Glass Company/Carlyle Project Block D [44AX181]. Additionally, researchers should read Historic Photographic Documentation of the Southern R&R [sic] Roundhouse by Kathryn A. Brown.)

     
  • 1982 - Historical Preservation. 1992 Master Plan for the City of Alexandria.

Anderberg, Lorna 

  • 1987 - A comparison of Alexandria Quakers to the Population of White Alexandria. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 28.  

Anderson, Adrian D. 

  • 1992 - The African American Heritage Park, Alexandria, Virginia. Draft manuscript. Tellus Consultants Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.

    Silver Leaf (Colored) Black Baptist Cemetery/African American Heritage Park/Carlyle Project (black Baptist cemetery), 500 Holland Lane, 44AX136. 

    Initial investigation of the 1.1-acre property, now African American Heritage Park unearthed a headstone belonging to Abraham Hunter, though it was not clear that the monument was associated with a burial until additional head and foot stones were found, supporting the presence of a cemetery on site. Archival evidence confirmed the establishment of a cemetery in 1885 by the Silver Leaf (Colored) Black Baptist organization. It then was buried under landfill in the early 1960s. A second phase of investigation by city archaeologists resulted in three graves, coffin fragments and hardware, and a portion of a man’s vest. Two other individuals were identified: Sarah Hunter and Julia Ann Washington. A third phase of investigation by the same firm that completed the initial phase led to the discovery of 28 burials, identified by grave shafts and coffin fragments and hardware, and shells placed above the graves—common in African American mortuary tradition. In addition, two more of the interred were named: Mary Rome and Matilda Gaines. (Note: This report is not final. It is an incomplete preliminary draft so there is some missing information and the map is not complete. Its inclusion here is a testament to the site’s importance. Researchers also should review the report for Carlyle Project Area A. Additionally, researchers should read “A Preliminary Historical Report: The Baptist Cemetery Association of Alexandria, Virginia” by Pamela J. Cressey [1985] and “African American Heritage Park: Archaeological Investigations” by Francine Bromberg and Steven J. Shephard [1992], both Alexandria Archaeology Publications.)

     

Architrave P.C., Architects 

  • 2000 - Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project. Historic Structures Report and Treatment Plan for the Jones Point Lighthouse and District of Columbia South Cornerstone. Jones Point Park, Alexandria, Virginia. Washington, D.C.

Arden, Lynn 

  • 1980 - The Deterioration and Treatment of Excavated Organic Materials from the 500-Block of South King Street, Alexandria Virginia. M.A. Thesis, Department of Museum Studies, The George Washington University. University Microfilms, Intl., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Artemel, Janice G. Elizabeth Crowell, Donald A. Hull and Dennis Knepper  

  • 1988 - A Phase IIA Archaeological Study, Old Ford Plant Site, Alexandria, Virginia. Appendices. Engineering-Science, Inc., Washington, D.C.

    Keith’s Wharf/Battery Cove/Ford’s Landing/“Old Ford Plant” (wharf; boat launch; shipyard; United States Military Railroad, Civil War, supply depot; coal yard; railyard; automobile plant; gun factory), 600 block of South Union Street, 44AX119. 

    A Phase I inquiry into this approximately 9.5-acre waterfront parcel laid out site history along with what archaeologists could expect to find plus how development would affect the archaeological resources. The project area consisted of made-land, filled between 1782 and 1785, creating a wharf that, at the time of inquiry, was composed of a parking lot, the 1932 Ford plant for automobile assembly and shipping, a boiler building, water tower, underground tanks, and a 1943 United States government building, constructed after 1942. (The Navy used the complex as an annex to its Piney Point, Maryland, gun factory.) In the early 19th century, “Keith’s Wharf,” as it was known, served as a commercial wharf for loading and discharging cargo. In the latter part of the 19th century, then again after the Civil War (until 1917), wharf activity consisted of shipbuilding and repair. During the war, the wharf served as the United States Military Railroad Depot. Beginning in 1880, the site also functioned as a coal yard. A railyard prospered on site during World War I, facilitating industrial access to the waterfront and thereby supporting the shipping industry at Jones Point. Phase IIA testing uncovered large buried timbers associated with the 18th-century wharf, late 19th-century coal and coal residue deposits attributed to the coal yard, and 20th-century fill. Archaeologists recommended further fieldwork prior to development of the project area. The Phase IIB/C and III study of Keith’s Wharf and Battery Cove found remains of the bulkhead of the wharf, marine railway, shipway/building slip, eight derelict vessels, barges, and a keeled vessel, and artifacts, including some prehistoric, ceramic and wine bottle glass artifacts, nails, etc. The derelict vessels were recovered from Battery Cove, a shallow bay stretching from the southern edge of the wharf to the historic Jones Point, used as a dump during early 20th-century river dredging activities. The artifacts were considered incidental inclusion in fill, redeposited from the initial point of discard. The investigation resulted in an extensive site report, which offered much historical information, a reconstruction of Keith’s Wharf, analysis of its construction and comparison to other wharves on the East Coast, discussion of the use of fill to restructure the city landscape, look into wharf construction as a craft, and examination of the economics of wharf construction and operation. (Note: Researchers also should review the three other site reports for 44AX119 and Breweries and Bottling Companies in the Washington Area by Engineering-Science, Inc.)

     

Artemel, Janice G., Elizabeth A. Crowell and Jeff Parker 

  • 1987 - The Alexandria Slave Pen: The Archaeology of Urban Captivity. Engineering-Science, Inc., Washington, D.C.

    Franklin and Armfield Slave Pen/Alexandria Hospital (residence; slave jail; Civil War soldiers’ prison; hospital; boarding house; tenant residence), 1315 and 1317 Duke Street, 44AX75. 

    Pre-construction archaeological research and excavation of the site, identified primarily as the Franklin and Armfield slave jail, documented five periods of occupation from 1812–1979, three of them transient. The site was first inhabited in 1812 by General Andrew Young. Archaeologists investigated the structures that served as his residence/office and kitchen, as they were still standing albeit significantly altered. Found at the interstate slave-trading complex (1828–1861) were architectural artifacts and features, including wells and postholes, but also a faunal object and a trash pit. During the Civil War (1861–1865), the property became a prison for Union soldiers. Archaeologists excavated a privy from this period. Pharmaceutical bottles, hypodermic needles, and a carpetbag date to the 1878–1885 use of the site as Alexandria Hospital. Lastly, from 1885–1979 there was a boarding house and apartments. The majority of the site’s artifacts date to this period. (Now known as Freedom House, 1315 Duke St. houses the offices of the Urban League. The Freedom House Museum is open to the public.)

     

Balicki, Joseph, Kerri Holland, Bryan Corle and Lynn B. Jones 

  • 2008 - Documentary Study and Archaeological Investigation, 1226 North Pegram Street and Polk Avenue (44AX198), Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia.

    1226 North Pegram Street (possible slave/tenant residence; possible target practice or weapons discharge area, Civil War), 44AX198. 

    Residential development on the 1.87-acre site spurred an archaeological inquiry. Finds dated to the late 18th–mid-19th century. Artifacts, three trash pits, and posthole likely corresponded to the Terrett family occupation period, though not to the Terretts themselves. Archaeologists cautiously associated these findings with a once nearby outbuilding or slave/tenant residence. The finding of a large number of buttons pointed to a laundry area. Other artifacts included ceramic sherds; bottle and window glass pieces; animal bone, brick, nail, oyster shell, and pipe fragments; and two possible prehistoric quartz flakes. A Civil War military artifact concentration primarily consisted of fired ammunition, suggesting that the area was used for target practice or discharging weapons by Union soldiers before returning to camp.

     

Balicki, Joseph and Bryan Corle 

  • 2006 - Archaeological Evaluation and Resource Management Plan for Episcopal High School Faculty Housing, 1200 Quaker Lane, Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia. Public Summary 

    Episcopal High School Faculty Housing (Civil War encampment) 1200 North Quaker Lane, 44AX200. 

    Before the construction of new faculty housing on the 0.67-acre high school property, archaeologists performed Phase I testing, finding a scatter of Civil War artifacts associated with a summer encampment but also earlier and later artifacts, too, ranging from the 18th through the early 20th century. Tests revealed disturbed stratigraphy due to plowing. The site also suffered from relic hunting. Yet fieldwork and metal detecting found: a 1774 Virginia halfpenny related to an unidentified 18th-century usage or occupation of the site as well as five coins ranging from 1837 to circa 1930; Civil War-era ammunition, uniform buttons, a shoulder scale attachment, canteen spout fragment, two gun cone protectors, and two pieces of carved or shaped lead plus two pieces of melted lead; ten non-military clothing artifacts, including three bearing Episcopal High School designations; and a pocket watch, pocket knife, and watch key. The project area lay within a larger site (44AX173), which encompassed the Virginia Theological Seminary and Episcopal High School. In June of 1861, the whole tract was commandeered by Union troops for a hospital, encampment, barracks, etc., explaining the presence of Civil War material in the project area. (Note: Researchers also should review the site report and inventory for Virginia Theological Seminary Faculty Housing [44AX173a].)

     

Balicki, Joseph, Bryan Corle, Charles Goode and Lynn Jones 

  • 2005 - Archaeological Investigations for Quaker Ridge Housing (44AX195), Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia. Public Summary 

    Quaker Ridge (Civil War encampment and hospital), 3517–3543 Duke Street, 44AX195. 

    Five residential lots on approximately 2.5 acres were to be redeveloped into townhouses, thus archaeologists were required to study the site. Civil War-era artifacts suggested the presence of a soldiers’ camp: ammunition, buttons, buckles, cap insignia, knapsack parts, shoe nails, and a decorated pipe bowl. Further supporting this were eight features: seven hearths (five probably kitchen-related and two probably for heating tents) and a remnant of a Crimean Oven, which would have heated the camp hospital tents. The Crimean Oven remnant resembled that found at site 44AX193 on N. Quaker Ln. Archaeologists identified the site as the autumn-of-1861 New York militia camp, potentially that of the 38th New York infantry regiment. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for 206 North Quaker Lane [44AX193] and Weicking Property.)

     

Balicki, Joseph, Bryan Corle and Kerri Holland 

  • 2006 - Archaeological Testing (44AX199) 108 N. Quaker Lane, Smucker Property, Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia.

Balicki, Joseph, Kerri Culhane and Donna J. Seifert 

  • 2001 - Archeological Investigations at 1456 Duke Street (44AX188), Proposed Marriott Residence Inn, Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia.

    Duke Street Tannery/Marriott Residence Inn (butchery/slaughterhouse; tannery; store; possible tenant residence), 1456 Duke Street, 44AX188. 

    The proposed erection of a Marriott Residence Inn prompted archaeologists to complete two phases of investigation: documentary study followed by excavation. The site’s location in the West End, an unincorporated community outside the city limits until its 1915 annexation, made it the prime location for slaughtering and tanning. The Duke Street Tannery/Tanyard operated from circa 1796 to the mid-19th century, burning down in 1853. Key to the development of the West End was the village’s location on Little River Turnpike (now Duke Street) and Hooff’s Run, a navigable waterway with access to Alexandria’s port (via Hunting Creek). Archival research confirmed that the site gave way to commercial and residential functions after its tanning days. A two-story frame store (1456 Duke St.) appeared in 1902 and 1921 maps; the 1921 map also showed an adjacent brick house thought to be the tenement illustrated on an 1845 map. Since the 1930s, the store structure sustained several additions and alterations, making the discovery of ground disturbance during excavation likely. Archaeologists found no significant artifacts or features. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX188.)

     

Balicki, Joseph and Kirstin Falk 

  • 2008 - Documentary Study for 3510-3618 Wheeler Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc.

    3510–3618 Wheeler Avenue (possible prehistoric area; possible Civil War encampment). 

    A documentary study of the approximately 6.5 acres, which were to be redeveloped into a police facility, showed that they once contained a mid-19th-century structure, such as a barn or other outbuilding. The project area was likely occupied by American Indians and then by Federal troops during the Civil War, but 20th-century grading and other ground disturbing activities removed any trace of these occupations. No further work was advised.

     

Barbash, Walter V. and Timothy J. Dennée 

  • 1993 - The First Lager Brewery in America, American Breweriana Journal, January - February 1993

Barr, Keith L. 

  • 1991 - Archaeological Explorations at the Boyhood Home of Robert E. Lee. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 43.
  • 1989 - The Alexandria Canal: Tidewater Terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal System. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 22.
  • 1989 - The Moore/McLean Sugar House (44AX96). Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 6.  

Barr, Keith L., Pamela J. Cressey and Barbara H. Magid 

  • 1994 - How Sweet it Was: Alexandria's Sugar Trade and Refining Business, in Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake, Paul A. Shakel and Barbara J. Little, editors. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. and London.

Barr, Keith L., Pamela J. Cressey and Steven J. Shephard 

  • 1989 - Report on the City of Alexandria Archaeological Protection Ordinance.

Barse, William P. and Jeffrey Harbison 

  • 2006 - Phase III Archeological Mitigation of the Prehistoric and Historic Components of Site 44AX185, Jones Point Park, Alexandria, Virginia. URS Corporation, Florence, New Jersey.
  • 2000 - Phase II Archaeological Testing on the Prehistoric and Historic Components of Site 44AX185, Jones Point Park, Alexandria, Virginia. URS Corporation, Florence, New Jersey. [DRAFT]

Bartlett, Rebecca and Pamela J. Cressey 

  • 1986 - Cities and Archaeology – Preservation 1985. Compilations of Local Legislation and Planning Bibliographies, compiled for the Urban Archaeology Group.

Beiro, Jean A. 

  • 1993 - A History of Cloud’s Mill in Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 52.  

Bernstein, Peter 

Bevan, Bruce 

  • 1999 - A Geophysical Survey at the Alexandria Freedmen's Cemetery. Geosight, Weems, Virginia. Prepared for URS Greiner, Inc., Florence, New Jersey.

Blomberg, Belinda 

  • 1989 - The Formation of Free Black Communities in Nineteenth-Century Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 2.
  • 1988 - Free Black Adaptive Responses to the Antebellum Urban Environment: Neighborhood Formation and Socio-economic Stratification in Alexandria, Virginia, 1790-1850. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, American University. University Microfilms, Intl., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Bodor, Tom 

More on Archaeology at Fort Ward 

Boyd, Varna G. 

  • 1990 - Archaeological Investigations at the Proposed Duke Street Baptist Church Home for the Elderly. 

Boyd, Varna G., Elizabeth A. Moore, Joan W. Chase, William Reid and Richard J. Dent 

Lynn House (possible residence), 4400 West Braddock Road, 44AX152. 

Plans to build a new nursing facility south of the site’s existing one precipitated archaeological investigation. Survey and testing unearthed late 19th- and 20th-century artifacts from disturbed ground and the cellar of a mid-20th-century structure destroyed by fire. Archaeologists theorized that either extensive grading pre-construction obliterated all evidence of any historic structures or that these lay underneath the facility. The site may have never even had any. (Note: Lynn House is the name of the present-day Christian Science nursing facility; it is not an historical site name. It is named after Church of Christ, Scientist, founder Mary Baker Eddy’s home in Lynn, Massachusetts.)

Bromberg, Francine 

More on Archaeology at Fort Ward 

Bromberg, Francine and Steven J. Shephard 

  • 1992 - African American Heritage Park: Archaeological Investigations. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 39. 

Bromberg, Francine W., Steven J. Shephard, Barbara H. Magid, Pamela J. Cressey, Timothy Dennée, and Bernard K. Means. 

  • 2001 - To Find Rest From All Trouble: The Archaeology of the Quaker Burying Ground, Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.

Brown, Kathryn A. 

Bryant, Tammy 

Carpenter, James R. and Henry L. Lucas 

  • 1990  - Report of Preliminary Subsurface Exploration and Geotechnical Analysis: Proposed CNS Development, Alexandria, Virginia. ECS, Ltd., Chantilly, Virginia.

Cheek, Charles D. 

  • 1992 - Addendum: Phase Ib Archeological Survey for the Woodrow Wilson Bridge Improvement Study, Jones Point U.S. Army Reserve Training Headquarters, Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia

Cheek, Charles D. and Cecile G. Glendening 

Cheek, Charles D. and Dana B. Heck 

More on Archaeology at Potomac Yard. 

Cheek, Charles D., Donna J. Seifert and J. Sanderson Stevens 

  • 1990 - Phase IA Archaeological Survey for the Woodrow Wilson Bridge Improvement Study. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia.

Cheek, Charles D., and Karen L. Zatz 

Clem, Michael 

Cox, Al 

Crampton, Alice C., Diane Halsall and J. Sanderson Stevens 

  • 1997 - Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project Improvement Study: Historic Resources Identification and Evaluation Report. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia

Cressey, Pamela J. 

  • 2006 - Digging for the Past: Alexandria, Virginia. With Margaret J. Anderson. Oxford University Press.  
  • 2002 - Walk and Bike the Alexandria Heritage Trail. A Guide to Exploring a Virginia Town's Hidden Past. Capital Books, Inc., Sterling VA.  
  • 1995 - Setting the Scene, in The Archaeology of 19th Century Virginia. Theodore R. Reinhart and John H. Sprinkle, Jr., editors. Council of Virginia Archaeologists. Special Publication of the Archaeological Society of Virginia.
  • 1994 - Alexandria Artifacts. A weekly newspaper column in The Alexandria Gazette Packet, 1994-1997.
  • 1993 - To Witness the Past: African American Archaeology in Alexandria, Virginia. Exhibit Catalogue. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.
  • 1990 - L’Archaeologie Urbaine aux Etas-Unis, Archaeologiques, Numeros 3-4, L’Association des archaeologues du Quebec, Quebec, Canada.
  • 1990 - Managing Archaeological Resources in Alexandria, Virginia: Knowing What You Know and Don’t Know. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 14.
  • 1987 - Community Archaeology in Alexandria, Virginia, Conserve Neighborhoods, No. 69, National Trust for Historic Preservation Washington, D.C.
  • 1985 - The Alexandria Virginia City-Site: Archaeology in an Afro-American Neighborhood, 1830-1910. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa. University Microfilms, Intl., Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • 1985 - A Preliminary Historical Report, The Baptist Cemetery Association of Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 20.
  • 1985 - The Archaeology of Free Blacks in Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 19.
  • 1984 - Remembering the Alexandria Canal, Fairfax Chronicles, Vol. 8, pp. 1-3.
  • 1983 - Approaches to Preserving a City’s Past. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.
  • 1981 - The Alexandria Urban Archaeology Project: An Integrative Model for Systematic Study, Conservation, and Crisis, Anthropological Careers, T. Landman, editor, Anthropological Society of Washington, D.C.
  • 1980 - An Enduring Afro-American Neighborhood: An Archaeological Perspective from Alexandria, Virginia, Black Heritage, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 1-10.
  • 1979 - Historical Archaeology and the Alexandria Urban Archaeology Project, Fairfax Chronicles, Vol. 3, No. 1.
  • 1978 - The City as a Site: The Alexandria Model for Urban Archaeology, in Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 1978.

Cressey, Pamela J. and Keith L. Barr 

Cressey, Pamela J. and Belinda Blomberg 

  • 1989 - The Nineteenth Century Transformation and Spatial Development of Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.
  • 1986 - Cities and Archaeology – Research 1985.Compilation of City Overviews and Bibliographies, compiled for the Urban Archaeology Group, Alexandria Archaeology Publications.  

Cressey, Pamela J. and Susan L. Henry 

  • 1989 - Archaeological Significance in Cities: Developing Contexts and Criteria for Decision Making. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 21. 

Cressey, Pamela J. and Steven J. Shephard 

  • 1987 - Geographical Versus Social Scale in Alexandria: A Growing Archaeological Perspective. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 23.
  • 1983 - The Alexandria Waterfront Forum: Birth and Rebirth 1730-1983. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.  

Cressey, Pamela J. and John F. Stephens 

  • 1982 - The City-Site Approach to Urban Archaeology in Alexandria, Virginia, in Archaeology of Urban America: The Search for Pattern and Process, R.S. Dickens, Jr., editor. Academic Press, New York.

Cressey, Pamela J., Barbara H. Magid, Steven J. Shephard, and John F. Stephens 

  • 1982 - The Core-Periphery Relationship and the Archaeological Record in Alexandria, Virginia, in Archaeology of Urban America: The Search for Pattern and Process, R.S. Dickens, Jr., editor. Academic Press, New York.

Creveling, Donald K. 

  • 1987 - Archaeological Investigations at Christ Church, Alexandria, Virginia, Alexandria History, Vol. VII, pp. 30-48.

Creveling, Donald K. and Pamela J. Cressey 

  • 1986 - Christ Church (44AX88) Archaeological Study, Second Testing. Alexandria Archaeology, Office of History Alexandria, City of Alexandria, Virginia.

Cromwell, T. Ted 

Bontz Site/West End Village, United States Military Railroad Complex (residence; railyard; United States Military Railroad, Civil War, complex including commissary and locomotive turnaround), 1100–1900 Duke Street, 44AX103 and 105

Pre-road widening archaeologists undertook Phase II analysis of this stretch of Duke Street, unearthing a 19th-century wooden drain culvert, a post stain associated with a possible early 19th-century residence, and the remains of two late 18th-/early 19th-century residences. But the landscape had been so altered that only sites 44AX103 and 44AX105 were recommended for further study. The Bontz site (103), in the former West End Village, encompassed the remains of two early to mid-19th-century residences. Site 105 contained a part of the Civil War-era United States Military Railroad complex, including a commissary and locomotive turnaround. Archaeologists suggested additional analysis to document the location’s pre-Civil War occupation. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX103 and 105 and the reports for 1100–1900 Duke Street, Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company, Spring Garden, West Family Cemetery [44AX183], and Whole Foods/Royalton Project [44AX190].)

Cromwell, T. Ted and Timothy J. Hills 

Bontz Site/West End Village, Spring Garden Farms/United States Military Railroad Complex (residence; butchery/slaughterhouse; farm; resort; railyard; United States Military Railroad, Civil War, complex including commissary and locomotive turnaround), 1100–1900 Duke Street (specifically 1700 and 1200), 44AX103 and 105

This Phase III report cleared sites 44AX103 and 44AX105 for road-widening work. It included an extensive history of West End Village, with maps, and of the sites in the early 20th century. Archaeologists cited the narrow width of the construction zone and the area’s high degree of disturbance as their reasons for giving authorization. The Bontz site (103), in the former West End Village, encompassed the remains of two structures—both with a history spanning from the late 18th through the mid-20th century. Butchers occupied the structures and may have used one or both for business. Archaeological study turned up several sheet middens at the site and determined that there had been rear additions and renovations to the properties. Many lots in the West End were owned by butchers at this time. The well-preserved Civil War-era United States Military Railroad complex site (105) included a commissary and locomotive turnaround. Formerly the location comprised the Spring Garden Farms subdivision and resort. Then residential gave way to industrial use, which in turn was followed by the railroad. Threats of development prompted archaeologists to call for more fieldwork for the parts of sites not affected by roadwork. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX103 and 105 and the reports for 1100–1900 Duke Street, Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company, Spring Garden, West Family Cemetery [44AX183], and Whole Foods/Royalton Project [44AX190].)

Cuddy, Thomas W., Francine W. Bromberg, Heather Crowl, T. Michael Miller, Kevin Mock and Cynthia Pfansteihl 

  • 2006 - The North Lee Street Project: A Phase I, II, and III Archeological Investigation of 221 North Lee Street, Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology, Alexandria, Virginia and URS Corporation, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Daugherty, Jesse, Madeleine Pappas, Justin Patton and Kimberly Prothro 

Debats, Donald A 

  • 1989 - Spatial Analysis and Social Attributes, Alexandria, Virginia in 1859. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 3.

Deines, Ann 

  • 1994 - Slave Population in 1810 in Alexandria, Virginia: A Preservation Plan for Historic Resources. Master’s Thesis, Department of American Studies, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

Dennée, Timothy J. 

DeRossi, Lenora 

  • 1985 - Christ Churchyard Gravestones and Burial History. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 30.

Doell & Doell 

EDAW, Inc. 

  • 1984 - Mount Vernon Memorial Highway Historic Resources Study.
  • n.d. - Cultural Landscape Report: Mount Vernon Memorial Highway. Volume I: History.
  • n.d. - Cultural Landscape Report: Mount Vernon Memorial Highway. Volume II: Documentation.
  • n.d. - Cultural Landscape Report: Mount Vernon Memorial Highway. Appendix F: Final Construction Report by W.I. Lee
  • n.d. - Cultural Landscape Report: Mount Vernon Memorial Highway. Appendix G: Final Landscape Report by Wilber Simonson.

Embrey, James W., Lynn D. Jones and Joseph Balicki 

Engineering-Science, Inc. 

2915 King Street (possible prehistoric site; residence), 44AX122 

Phase I examination of the two-acre site, which included a house and outbuilding, consisted of archival study to develop the chain of title and subsurface testing. One prehistoric quartz flake and a second piece of debitage—both found in a disturbed context—represented the extent of the pre-20th-century material. 20th-century artifacts included ceramics, glass, nails, and coal, making an early 20th-century date for the house and outbuilding very likely. Archaeologists noted the possibility of a 19th-century structure existing under or within the 20th-century one. 

Keith’s Wharf/Battery Cove/Ford’s Landing/“Old Ford Plant” (wharf; boat launch; shipyard; United States Military Railroad, Civil War, supply depot; coal yard; railyard; automobile plant; gun factory), 600 block of South Union Street, 44AX119 

A Phase I inquiry into this approximately 9.5-acre waterfront parcel laid out site history along with what archaeologists could expect to find plus how development would affect the archaeological resources. The project area consisted of made-land, filled between 1782 and 1785, creating a wharf that, at the time of inquiry, was composed of a parking lot, the 1932 Ford plant for automobile assembly and shipping, a boiler building, water tower, underground tanks, and a 1943 United States government building, constructed after 1942. (The Navy used the complex as an annex to its Piney Point, Maryland, gun factory.) In the early 19th century, “Keith’s Wharf,” as it was known, served as a commercial wharf for loading and discharging cargo. In the latter part of the 19th century, then again after the Civil War (until 1917), wharf activity consisted of shipbuilding and repair. During the war, the wharf served as the United States Military Railroad Depot. Beginning in 1880, the site also functioned as a coal yard. A railyard prospered on site during World War I, facilitating industrial access to the waterfront and thereby supporting the shipping industry at Jones Point. Phase IIA testing uncovered large buried timbers associated with the 18th-century wharf, late 19th-century coal and coal residue deposits attributed to the coal yard, and 20th-century fill. Archaeologists recommended further fieldwork prior to development of the project area. The Phase IIB/C and III study of Keith’s Wharf and Battery Cove found remains of the bulkhead of the wharf, marine railway, shipway/building slip, eight derelict vessels, barges, and a keeled vessel, and artifacts, including some prehistoric, ceramic and wine bottle glass artifacts, nails, etc. The derelict vessels were recovered from Battery Cove, a shallow bay stretching from the southern edge of the wharf to the historic Jones Point, used as a dump during early 20th-century river dredging activities. The artifacts were considered incidental inclusion in fill, redeposited from the initial point of discard. The investigation resulted in an extensive site report, which offered much historical information, a reconstruction of Keith’s Wharf, analysis of its construction and comparison to other wharves on the East Coast, discussion of the use of fill to restructure the city landscape, look into wharf construction as a craft, and examination of the economics of wharf construction and operation. (Note: Researchers also should review the three other site reports for 44AX119 and Breweries and Bottling Companies in the Washington Area by Engineering-Science, Inc.)

Erickson, Philip M. 

  • 1995 - Ship’s Cargoes of Alexandria, Virginia in 1792: Imports from Foreign Ports. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 66.   
  • 1988 - Alexandria Water Company Permits, the First 1000 “Pipers.” Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 8.
  • 1988 - Alexandria Common Council Minutes, 1817-1823. Vol. I. Transcription. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 9.
  • 1988 - Alexandria Common Council Minutes, 1824-1830. Vol. II. Transcription. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 10.

Fauber Garbee, Inc. 

Carlyle House (residence), 121 North Fairfax Street, 44AX3 

Earnest Wagar undertook the reconstruction of the 1753 house in 1906 as a house museum. It fell into decline until 1974 when the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority preserved it to the period of John Carlyle’s lifetime (mid- to late 18th century) as a historic site within a public park. The NVRPA plan of action involved demolishing the mid-19th-century Mansion House Hotel on the property and remodeling the adjacent Bank of Alexandria. Demolishing the hotel brought the previously obscured house into view. The office and kitchen dependencies were demolished previously in 1855. This report detailed the house’s construction and design influences and offered a history of the property and house itself, including its remodelings and occupations. Results of the archaeological investigation included such features as well shafts and privies holding ceramics, glasswares, bottles, and other artifacts dating to or close to the lifetime of Carlyle. These emanated from both the house property and the Mansion House Hotel/Bank of Alexandria. A separate draft archaeological report presented a history of the site along with a study and catalogue of the artifacts. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX3.) 

Federal Highway Administration 

  • 1998 - Woodrow Wilson Bridge Improvement Study Archaeological Research Summary Alexandria, Virginia. Washington, D.C.

Ferland, Sara C., Mike Klein and Emily A. Lindtveit 

Mark Center VI (Area A), Buildings 2A, 2B, and 3 (Area B) (American Indian basecamp or tool-making site), 4900 Seminary Road, 44AX205 (in Area A)  

Archaeologists uncovered a prehistoric site in Area A. Finds included the base of a Savannah River point, circa 2,500–1,000 B.C. Fieldwork yielded numerous stone tools and lithic debris from toolmaking plus two isolated historic artifacts. (Note: Researchers also should review the three earlier reports for Mark Center.) 

Fiedel, Stuart J. and Bryan Corle 

Battery Heights (residence; battery of Civil War fort), 514 North Quaker Lane, 44AX186 

Prior to residential development of the approximately 1.6-acre site, archaeologists performed shovel tests and investigated the project area’s previously identified Civil War-era earthwork. Tests gleaned ceramic, glass, and metal fragments associated with the site’s residential past. An 1861 map showed four residences with the project area located between two of them. The ceramics suggested an initial presence in the area circa 1780–1840. The earthwork, dated to circa 1863 (if not before), represented one of the two batteries associated with the Union occupation of the Cooper family plantation, Cameron, also known as Cooper’s Hill and, by Union soldiers, Traitor’s Hill or Fort Traitor (44AX199). (Cameron was one of the four houses shown on the 1861 map, but not one of the two flanking the site.) Archaeologists attributed the absence of Civil War artifacts to relic hunting or the infrequent presence of troops in any numbers at the battery, characterized as an “unarmed fortification.” A line of earthworks ran southeast from this point to Fort Williams, though the existence of a rifle trench at this battery set it apart from others.

Foss, Robert M. 

Gadsby’s Tavern (tavern; residence; hotel), 134 North Royal Street, 44AX2 

Charles and Ann Mason opened a tavern on site in 1752. In 1778, the property was divided into seven fronts on Royal Street, but, in 1792, they were reconsolidated for John Wise’s three-story structure. Then, in 1802, John Gadsby’s lease for a tavern called for him to erect a brick stable and dwelling house (outside the site) and to remove any wooden outbuildings in disrepair. In 1878, the American Legion wing was added to what was then the City Hotel. The several occupations and uses of the project area made sorting out the archaeological findings complicated. For example, the courtyard showed evidence of four structures: a brick footing dating to the 1750s, probably from one of the earliest outbuildings on the site; two additional brick footings, dating between 1796–1815, thought to represent an addition to the coach house; and a small section of brick walkway dating to after 1770. Archaeologists recommended exploring the rest of the courtyard prior to it being sealed with concrete. Also, the report called for creating an artifact inventory.

Friedman, Janet, Phillip Hill, Kevin Mock, Heather Crowl and Cynthia Pfanstiehl 

  • 1998 - The North Lee Street Project: A Phase I, II, and III Archeological Investigation of 221 North Lee Street, Alexandria, Virginia, Site 44AX180. Dames & Moore, Bethesda, Maryland.

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