Alexandria Archaeology Bibliography: M-R

This is part of a comprehensive listing of written material on archaeology in Alexandria, Virginia. It also includes some historical and architectural studies.

Page updated on Oct 20, 2021 at 2:00 PM

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Maas, Anna

Maas, Anna, Dan Baicy and Boyd Sipe

Magid, Barbara H. 

  • 2017 - Alexandria, VirginiaCeramics in America, editors Robert Hunter and Angelika R. Kuettner, Chipstone Foundation.
  • 2013 - "Stone-ware of excellent quality, Alexandria manufacture" Part II: The Pottery of Benedict C. Milburn, Ceramics in America, editor Robert Hunter, Chipstone Foundation.
  • 2012 - "Stone-ware of excellent quality, Alexandria manufacture" Part I: The Pottery of John SwannCeramics in America, editor Robert Hunter, Chipstone Foundation.
  • 2010 - Alexandria Archaeology Laboratory Reference Book (revised 2010).
  • 2009 - Commemorative Wares in Alexandria, ca. 1800-1815, Antiques in Alexandria catalogue. Excerpted with permission from “Commemorative Wares in George Washington’s Hometown,” Ceramics in America 2006.
  • 2008 - Robert H. Miller, Importer: Alexandria and St. Louis, Ceramics in America, editor Robert Hunter, Chipstone Foundation, Volume 8.
  • 2008 - Pottery for Alexandria Kitchens, Antiques in Alexandria catalogue.
  • 2006 - Commemorative Wares in George Washington's Hometown, Ceramics in America, editor Robert Hunter, Chipstone Foundation, Volume 6.
  • 2005 - Sugar Refining Pottery from Alexandria and Baltimore, Ceramics in America, editor Robert Hunter, Chipstone Foundation, Volume 5.
  • 2004 - A New Look at Old Stoneware: The Pottery of Tildon Easton , Ceramics in America, editor Robert Hunter, Chipstone Foundation, Volume 4, pp. 249-252.
  • 2004 - Alexandria Slipware and the Philadelphia Connection, The New York Ceramics Fair catalogue.
  • 2003 - Made in Alexandria: Highlights from the Alexandria Archaeology Collection, Alexandria Antiques Show catalogue, Historic Alexandria Foundation.
  • 2000 - Water, Water Everywhere: Collections Management for Wet Sites, North American Archaeologist, Volume 21, Number 1.
  • 1996 - An Archaeological Perspective on Alexandria's Pottery Tradition, Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Winter 1995-96.
  • 1990 - Representative Ceramics from the Alexandria Archaeology Collection, Historic Alexandria Antiques Show Catalogue, Alexandria, Virginia.
  • 1989 - Artifacts, Advertisements and Archaeology: Studying Alexandria's Merchants, in The Potomac: Headwaters of the Constitution, Proceedings of the Northern Virginia Studies Conference 1986, Fairfax, Virginia.
  • 1989 - Tradition and Innovation at a Nineteenth Century Pottery. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 5.
  • 1988 - Evolution of a Successful Proposal: Alexandria Archaeology, in The Fine Art of Federal Grantsmanship for Museums, Nancy J. Parezo and Germaine Juneau, editors. American Association of Museums, Resource Report 7, Washington, D.C.
  • 1987 - The Sugar House Site, 44AX96, Interim Report: 1987 Field Season. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 24.  
  • 1986 - Tildon Easton: The Rediscovery of an Alexandria Potter. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 38.
  • 1985 - Artifacts, Advertisements and Archaeology: Catalogue of an Exhibition. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.
  • 1982 - Alexandria Archaeology: Evidence of the China Trade, in the 27th Annual Washington Antiques Show Catalogue, Washington, D.C.

Magid, Barbara H. and Bernard K. Means 

Magid, Barbara H. and Carol Snow 

  • 1991 - Buried in Storage: The Alexandria Archaeology Collections Management Project, Technical Leaflet, History News, Vol. 46, No. 5.
  • 1990 - Conducting Conservation Assessments. Planning for the Future of our Collections. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 15.

McCord, Theodore 

  • 1985 - Across the Fence But a World Apart. The Coleman Site, 1796-1907. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.

Means, Bernard K. 

  • 2005 - Building a Bridge from the Past to the Future at Jones Point Park: Archaeological Discoveries of Alexandria, Virginia's American Indian Heritage through the Woodrow Wilson Bridge Projects at 44AX185.

Meyer, Richard 

  • 1991 - Woodrow Wilson Bridge Improvement Study: Architectural/ Historic Resources Determination of Effect Report. John Milner Associates, Inc. West Chester, Pennsylvania.

Meyer, Richard and Donna J. Seifert 

  • 1990 - Phase I Architectural/Historic Resources Survey for the Woodrow Wilson Bridge Improvement Study. John Milner Associates, Inc., West Chester, Pennsylvania.

Miller, David L. and Allan R. Westover 

  • 1990 - An Archaeological Survey and Testing of the Episcopal High School Tennis Courts in Alexandria, Virginia. Tellus Consultants, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Moon, Krystyn

Morin, Edward, Anne Brockett, Jane Carolan, Mark Edwards, Jeffrey Harbison, Terry Klein, Cassandra Michaud and Justin Patton 

  • 2000 - Phase II Archeological Testing and Determination of Eligibility Documentation for Submittal to the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, Virginia Shipbuilding Corporation Site (44AX78) Alexandria, Virginia. URS Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland.

Morin, Edward and Jeffrey Harbison 

  • 2005 - Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project. Supplemental Environmental Assessment Archeological/Geomorphological Investigations Within Four Alternatives Proposed for Access and Parking Areas, Jones Point Park, Alexandria, Virginia. URS Corporation, Florence, New Jersey

Morton, Brown W. III 

Stabler-Leadbeater Apothecary Shop (apothecary shop), 105–107 South Fairfax Street, 44AX44 

This 1984 historic structure report documented the condition of the former apothecary shop now museum and gift shop. The report identified it among the oldest preserved apothecaries in the United States and the only apothecary in Virginia to operate continuously from the 18th–20th century (1796–1933). The structure survived the tests of time, albeit with some deterioration. This report made recommendations for rehabilitation and repair of the property. 

Moyar, Joanna T. 

  • 1986 - Interpreting the Results of Research: Is What We Don’t Say Significant? Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 7.
  • 1985 - Alexandria Merchants: Research Paper for the Artifacts, Advertisements and Archaeology Exhibition. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 17.

Mullen, John P. 

Mullen, John P., Boyd Sipe, Christine Jirikowic, Johnna Flahive and Edward Johnson 

1514–1524 King Street, 1600 and 1602 King Street, 1602 Dechantal Street (possible relation to adjacent tavern; possible residence and slave jail; tenant residence; commercial/industrial site), 44AX202 

Archaeologists undertook a three-phase study of the 0.61-acre tract adjacent to the late 18th-/early 19th-century Virginia House Tavern, which may have used the site during this time. The property was used from at least the second quarter of the 19th century into the 20th with agricultural use circa 1820 or earlier. By 1851 there likely was a residence and slave jail. Between 1855–1857 the butcher-owner subdivided the property into five parcels and built row houses, possibly using materials salvaged from the brick slave jail. These were occupied into the 20th century primarily by tenants then utilized as retail and office space. Excavated were 32 features, including, from the early to mid 19th century, a cobble walkway or drain, several postholes, two wooden box conduits or drains, two bored log pipes, and a barrel pit and, from the late 19th century, a buried barrel (possibly a privy), several pits (possibly for barrel privies), postholes, and a refuse pit. Also found was a well with mixed late 19th- and 20th-century deposits thought to be a water pump. The mid-19th-century plumbing features may have been constructed by Union troops but more likely as part of a water system for the slave jail or by the rowhouse residents. 18th–20th-century domestic artifacts indicative of several dwellings and occupations included: ceramic and pipe bowl and stem fragments and pieces of glass, metal, bone, shell, leather, slate, and wood. Lithic flakes in the fill were secondary deposits and therefore not attributed to prehistoric occupation of the site. 

Mullen, John P. and Craig Rose 

Mullen, John P. and Curt Breckenridge 

  • 2007 - Archaeological Resource Management Plan for the Potomac Yard Property, Landbays E, G, H, I, J, K, L, and M, City of Alexandria, Virginia. Thunderbird Archaeology, Gainesville, Virginia. Report Part I. Report Part II. Appendices.

More on Archaeology at Potomac Yard.  

Mullen, John, Daniel Baicy, David Carroll and Edward Johnson

Mullen, John P. and David Carroll

Mullen, John P., David Carroll, and Daniel P. Wagner

Mullen, John P. and Edward Johnson 

Mullen, John P., Edward Johnson, and Annie McQuillan 

Mullen, John P. and Jeremy Smith 

Mullen, John P. and William P. Barse 

More on Archaeology at Potomac Yard.  

Mullen, John P., Anna Maas, Penny Sandbeck, Daniel Baicy and Kathleen Jockel

Myers, Suzita C. 

  • 2003 - The Potter’s Art: Salt-glazed Stoneware of 19th Century Alexandria. (Second edition.) Alexandria Archaeology Publications.
  • 1982 - Alexandria Salt-glazed Stoneware: A Study in Material Culture 1813-1876. Master’s Thesis, University of Maryland.


Niculescu, Tatiana.


O'Donnell, Darby and Kim Zawacki 

325 South Whiting Street (possible prehistoric area; possible agricultural and/or domestic area) 

Despite the presence of several prehistoric and agricultural/domestic sites discovered previously within a mile of the project area, Phase I study of the two highly disturbed acres yielded no findings. A computer-generated map from the 1980s showed “ruins” on the eastern edge, but landscaping in the interim obliterated evidence of any structural remains. 

Otter, Ed 

Circle Terrace Hospital (residence; hospital), 900 block of Virginia Avenue, Braddock Heights 

Archaeologists performed research and shovel testing at the site of a new oxygen storage facility for the hospital. Records indicated that the Braddock Heights subdivision—the location of the project area—accommodated a house in the 19th century then probably a tenant house in the late 19th century as well as the large home of Dr. David Newton Rust, built in 1888. In the 1940s, the last Rust house occupant sold it to Circle Terrace, Inc., who incorporated it into the hospital. The house was demolished in the 1960s as the complex expanded. The archives did not include exact locations for the earliest residences and no artifacts were found. 


Paonessa, Laurie J., Simone Moffett and Elizabeth Crowell 

Whole Foods/Royalton Project (residence; tenant residence; bakery; grocery store; automobile dealership; automotive paint shop; shopping center), 1700 block of Duke Street, 44AX190 

In 2003 archaeologists accomplished two phases of study—research then digging—on the site’s approximately 1.65 acres prior to the imminent construction of a Whole Foods and residences on top of what had been a shopping center and parking lot from 1959–2002. Construction also was to include the removal of a grassy island, sidewalk widening, installation of underground utilities, and surface grading. During the initial phase, archaeologists established a complete chain of title, recording the various functions of the site over time: first, residential, including tenant occupation, then commercial, beginning with a bakery in the late 18th to early 19th century, then, by 1924, a grocery store, followed by a automobile dealership, automotive paint shop, and lastly the shopping center. John West, Jr. sold a lot to John Limerick in 1797, which he then subdivided. The larger lot became 1724 Duke St., the smaller one 1718. A house stood on the 1724 lot by 1804, but there was no good record of a house on the smaller lot until 1902. Excavation in the mid-1980s of the 1100–1900 blocks of Duke Street recovered the remnants of two late 18th- to early 19th-century buildings—one frame, one brick (identified as the Bontz site, 44AX103)—plus 19th- and 20th-century artifacts. Then, in 1988, excavation revealed fence postholes but more notably 24,000 ceramic and glass artifacts, pipe fragments, buttons, coins, marbles, and brick, dating to the late 18th/early 19th through the mid-20th century. Digging in 2003 exposed a 20th-century cellar, a brick wall that was probably part of a 19th-century house foundation, a 19th-century brick drain, and a brick-lined well similar to those built in the 19th-century along with 20th-century domestic artifacts. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for 1100–1900 Duke Street, including 44AX103 and 105, Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company, and Spring Garden.) 

Pappas, Madeleine, Janice G. Artemel and Elizabeth A. Crowell 

Alexandria Federal Courthouse (American Indian tool-making site; wagon yard; residence, including possible slave/tenant; farm; possible Civil War barracks and hospital or encampment and staging area; tavern; possible rail yard; scrap metal company; landfill), 401 Courthouse Square, 44AX164 

Before constructing the U.S. Federal Courthouse, archaeologists completed two phases of investigation, located on property owned by the Oliver Carr Company and Norfolk Southern Railroad. Phase I documented the use and chain of title of the site from the late 18th through the first half of the 19th century, surmising that it perhaps was a Civil War encampment and staging area, though more likely the site of a barracks and hospital, then returning to residential and agricultural use after the war.  In 1897, Southern Railroad purchased property that included the site, erecting rail yards and shops circa 1900 that may have extended into the site. In the 1950s, the railroad divided the land into leased parcels; the future courthouse site was occupied by the Alexandria Scrap Corporation, its tin press and temporary office buildings until the 1970s. There were landfill operations during this period, too. Phase II excavation turned up prehistoric artifacts, such as a base from a projectile point and other lithics, indicating a Late Archaic and Woodland period (3000 B.C.–1600 A.D.) camp for the procurement and manufacture of tools. Artifacts from the late 18th to the first half of the 19th century showed ongoing residential refuse disposal suggestive of a small residence or outbuilding, maybe that of tenant farmers, workers, or possibly enslaved people. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX164.) 

Papson, Ryun 

  • 2009 - A Phase I Archaeological Survey of the Proposed Virginia Theological Seminary Study Area Located at 3737 Seminary Road in Alexandria, Virginia (WAC357A). Archaeological Testing and Consulting Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland.

Parson, Kimberly and Caleb Christopher 

Bloxham Cemetery/Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project/Alexandria Business Center/Witter Street Recreation Complex (American Indian basecamp and tool-making site; residence; cemetery), area bounded by Witter Street, Telegraph Road, CSX Railroad, and Roth Street, 44AX127 and 128 

Before the development of an athletic field complex, archaeologists performed a Phase II assessment of the property’s two previously investigated sites: 44AX127 and 44AX128. 127 actually was two sites in one: an Early Woodland prehistoric site consisting of small, short-term encampments (183 artifacts found, mostly from plowzone, and a possible hearth) and a mid- to late 19th-century field scatter consistent with the Bloxham family occupation of the site from 1795 nearly through the 19th century (392 artifacts found, almost entirely from disturbed contexts). Work within 128 was limited to the Bloxham family cemetery where 12 grave shafts, including one brick burial vault, were discovered. After determining the cemetery boundaries, the site was backfilled without excavating the graves. Archaeologists recommended creating a 10-foot buffer around the east, south, and west lines of the cemetery and a 45-foot buffer on the north end (this area was not fully delineated) prior to beginning construction activities. (The City of Alexandria later marked the 12 grave shafts and leveled the area.) (Note: This area was investigated several times over a fifteen-year period. Researchers also should review the three earlier site reports for 44AX127 and 128.)  

Parsons Engineering Science 

Robert Portner Brewing Company (brewery), 600 block of North St. Asaph Street, 44AX196 

Robert Portner began construction on his brewery in 1868, and the refinements and renovations—in order to keep up with ever-changing brewing technology—continued until operations were reduced in 1916. The plant closed by 1921. The various construction episodes were visible in the archaeological record. Phase I work beneath the site’s parking lots resulted in 15 architectural features, including the beer vault, walls from several associated features, and two wells or privies. Phase II excavation unearthed 41 features, including foundations for the two brewhouses (1868 and 1894), two brick shafts, which were cisterns for water storage, beer vault foundations, and the beer cellar floor. There were very few artifacts: a large iron strap hinge, wall or beam anchor, some steel and copper pipe, and a wooden box conduit containing insulated wires associated with the brewery’s electrical system. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley and Shuter’s Hill Brewery/Klein’s Brewery/Englehardt’s Brewery/Carlyle Project Area II-B [44AX35]. Additionally, researchers should read Robert Portner and his Brewing Company by Timothy J. Dennée). 

Petraglia, Michael D., Catharine B. Toulmin and Madeleine Pappas 

Bloxham Cemetery/Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project/Alexandria Business Center/Witter Street Recreation Complex (American Indian basecamp or tool-making site; cemetery), area bounded by Witter Street, Telegraph Road, CSX Railroad, and Roth Street, 44AX127 and 128 

Archaeological excavation of the 22-acre tract unearthed stone tools along the streambeds, confirming prehistoric occupation of the site. Excavation also revealed a footstone marked “W.H.W.” and skeletal remains, thought to belong to William H. Whaley, stage coach owner and husband of Jane E. (Bloxham) Whaley, circa 1850. (The City of Alexandria later reinterred these remains and leveled the area.) (Note: This area was investigated several times over a fifteen-year period. Researchers also should review the three other site reports for 44AX127 and 128—two prior and one later.)  

Pfanstiehl, Cynthia, Elizabeth A. Crowell, Eugene Goodman, Donald Hull, Edith Baird and Ray Wood 

Mark Center/Winkler Tract (American Indian tool-making site), 1801–1901 Beauregard Street, 44AX124

In surveying the site, archaeologists unearthed prehistoric artifacts and glass vessel fragments of recent origin. Subsequent excavation recovered numerous lithic fragments suggestive of an American Indian tool-making site, indicating a nearby base camp. (Note: Researchers also should review the three later reports for Mark Center.)  

Pfanstiehl, Cynthia, Heather Crowl, Richard O'Connor and Rachel Grant 

Virginia Glass Company/Carlyle Project Block D (bottle factory), 1820–1828 Duke Street, 44AX181 

The Norfolk Southern Corporation funded this extensive investigation of its Carlyle Project Block D, formerly the Virginia Glass Co. bottle factory from the late 19th to the early 20th century. It was the only bottle-making company in Virginia in the 1890s. Though it survived an 1895 fire, another one in 1916 shuttered the plant. The factory never became fully mechanized at a time when mechanization was turning into the norm. Phase I testing determined that some features of the factory were intact; Phase II/III investigation unearthed them, namely foundations, furnaces, lehrs, and a brick ventilation system, as well as bottles, other glass objects, and glass-making tools. The remains of the factory were preserved under Carlyle Park. 

Pfanstiehl, Cynthia, Holly Heston and Elizabeth A. Crowell 

Bloxham Cemetery/Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project/Alexandria Business Center Areas A and X/Witter Street Recreation Complex (cemetery; railyard), area bounded by Witter Street, Telegraph Road, CSX Railroad, and Roth Street, 44AX127 and 128 

Archaeologists performed testing on part of the site (Area A) affected by the construction of the Business Center, uncovering no significant prehistoric or historic materials, mostly just charred wood and iron—byproducts of railroad operation. Additionally, archaeologists urged archival research and excavation of the portion of the site (Area X) occupied by the Bloxham cemetery and some Fruit Growers Express activity. (Note: This area was investigated several times over a fifteen-year period. Researchers also should review the three other site reports for 44AX127 and 128—one prior and two later.) 

Pfanstiehl, Cynthia, Edward Otter and Marilyn Harper 

Bloxham Cemetery/Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project/Alexandria Business Center/Witter Street Recreation Complex (possible American Indian basecamp or tool-making site; residence; cemetery; mill race; rail yard), area bounded by Witter Street, Telegraph Road, CSX Railroad, and Roth Street, 44AX127 and 128 

Archaeologists surveyed the site, finding it a likely location for prehistoric occupation, specifically the areas surrounding streambeds. Research and survey also turned up residences at the site dating from the early 19th century (or maybe as early as the late 17th century), including the Bloxham family occupation from 1795 nearly through the 19th century. The Bloxham lot incorporated a cemetery. In addition, during this period, a mill race ran through the site. Lastly, since the mid-19th century, the site functioned primarily as a rail yard. The Fruit Growers Express company took ownership of the rail lines in the 1920s, giving the site its “Fruit Growers” nickname. Follow-up testing and excavation were recommended. (Note: This area was investigated several times over a fifteen-year period. Researchers also should review the three later site reports for 44AX127 and 128.) 

Prothro, Kimberly 

  • 1989 - The Strand (204-210 Strand Street): A Report Prepared for Holland and Associates. Traceries, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Pulliam, Ted


Reeder, Ruth and Paul Nasca

Revis, Sara 

  • 1995 - History of the North Alfred Street Sugar House, 44X96. Archival Profile of 111-117 South Alfred Street. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 42.
  • 1992 - Block Profile of the 1000 Block of King Street, 1797-1910, and Lot Profile: 1010 King Street (44AX73). Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 37.
  • 1991 - Hannah Jackson: An African American Woman and Freedom. Archival Data Pertaining to 406-408 South Royal Street. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 33.
  • 1991 - 217 N. Royal Street (44AX66) 1790-1810: Archival Profile of Site and Adjoining Area. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 34.
  • 1991 - The Sanford-Dempsey-Carter House, 217 South Fairfax Street, 44AX69. Archival Profile of the 200 Block of South Fairfax Street, West Side. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 35.
  • 1991 - Contrast in Development: The Merchant’s Mansion and a Free African American Neighborhood. Archival Profile of 113-119 South West Street and the Darnell Family. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 36.

Rose, Craig 

More on Archaeology at Potomac Yard.