History of 1315 Duke Street
The Franklin and Armfield Slave Pen at 1315 Duke Street was one of the largest slave trading companies in the country and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The three-story brick building with mansard roof was built as the residence of Robert Young, Brigadier General of the second Militia of the District of Columbia. By 1828, it was leased by Isaac Franklin and John Armfield and used as a "Negro Jail" or slave pen for slaves being shipped from Northern Virginia to Louisiana. Franklin and Armfield were active until 1836, exporting over 3,750 slaves to cotton and sugar plantations in the Deep South. Later, other firms continued trading in slaves here. A sign seen in Civil War period photographs has the name of Price, Birch & Co. During the Civil War the building and its surrounding site were used as a military prison for deserters, the L'Ouverture Hospital for black soldiers and the barrack for contraband-slaves who fled the confederate states and sought refuge with Union troops.
(Civil War era image of 1315 Duke Street)
History and Research
Research into the history of this building and the people who were trafficked through it is ongoing. Below is a sampling of how researchers are using primary sources to piece together the stories of those impacted by the domestic slave trade.
- The 1830 Census
The 1830 Census enumerates the enslaved people held at the Franklin & Armfield slave pen.
- Tracking the Brig Uncas in Historic Newspapers
Franklin & Armfield's two ships, the Uncas and the Tribune, carried enslaved people to New Orleans and goods like sugar back to Alexandria.
- Burdett and William Henry Washington
William Henry Washington, a ten-year old enslaved boy, sailed to New Orleans on the Uncas, as his father Burdett worked to free him.