A Brief History of 20th and 21st Century Alexandria
In 1940, sand hoppers from a concrete business could be seen on the Alexandria waterfront. This site, on The Strand, is now a City park at the foot of Prince Street.
The 500 Block of King Street in 1928.
New neighborhoods sprang up around the outskirts of the city by the turn of the century. Local industries included the Robert Portner Brewing Company, the Old Dominion glass works, the Virginia Marine Railway and Shipbuilding Company, and Potomac Yard, one of the largest rail facilities in the country. The U.S. Naval Torpedo Station, now the Torpedo Factory Art Center , was built during World War I and was expanded during World War II, with large industrial buildings dominating Alexandria's waterfront. A Ford Motor Company warehouse at the south end of the waterfront was also converted to military use during World War II.
The Second World War brought tremendous growth and change to the Washington area and to northern Virginia. National Airport was constructed at the beginning of the war on Alexandria's northern edge, the former site of Abingdon plantation. Thousands of people from all over the country poured into the region as the government expanded and Alexandria became one of many "bedroom communities" serving the capital city. This growth set the tone for the post-war period, as well, which has seen even greater development of Alexandria and her surrounding communities.
Today, Alexandria still retains much of its historic character. Many late 18th- and early 19th-century townhouses and warehouses remain in the "Old Town" section of the city, along the west bank of the Potomac River. While still a residential area for many Federal employees, Alexandria is also home to many national associations, corporations, restaurants, shops and other businesses. Many old landmarks have become museums, historic sites and art galleries. Public parks line the waterfront and the river is actively used by fishermen and recreational boaters. Visitors to the National Capitol area find that Alexandria serves as a quaint change of pace from the hectic hustle of downtown Washington, a place to relax and discover what the region was like many years ago.
- Discovering the Decades: 1900s. From the Alexandria Archaeology Volunteer News.
- Virgil Davis Doorways Glass Lantern Slide Collection consists of professional images that show Alexandria buildings from 1936 to the 1950s. In the collection of the Alexandria Library, Local History/Special Collections.
A Timeline of Alexandria History can be seen in the Torpedo Factory Arcade, on the waterfront at the base of King Street.
- 1906 Alexandria’s Union Station opens
- 1907 Potomac Yard opens, and becomes one of the busiest rail yards on the Eastern seaboard
- 1908 The Town of Potomac is founded, comprised of the street-car suburbs of Del Ray and St. Elmo
- 1909 Orville Wright demonstrates his flying machine for the U. S. Army by flying from Fort Meyer in Arlington to Shuter’s Hill and back.
- 1915 Annexation of the Braddock and Rosemont sections of Alexandria.
- 1919 The Naval Torpedo Station (now the Torpedo Factory Art Center) opens on the Alexandria waterfront to build and repair this new type of weapon.
- 1920 Parker-Gray School, named for Alexandria educators, opens to serve Alexandria’s African American students.
- 1929 American Legion Post #24 purchases historic Gadsby’s Tavern and preserves it from demolition.
- 1930 Annexation of the Town of Potomac, now the Del Ray neighborhood.
- 1932 George Washington Masonic Memorial is dedicated atop Shuter’s Hill.
- 1932 George Washington Memorial Parkway opens, connecting Washington D.C. with Mount Vernon and using Washington Street as its course through Alexandria.
- 1939 The sit-down strike at the segregated Barrett Library on Queen Street is the first organized act of civil disobedience in what became the Civil Rights movement.
- 1939 John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America purchases Lee-Fendall House.
- 1940 Robert Robinson Library (now the Alexandria Black History Museum) built for the city’s African American residents.
- 1940 Naval Torpedo Station reopens to produce munitions throughout World War II.
- 1941 Under the Lend-Lease Act, surplus torpedoes from Alexandria are sent to Great Britain.
- 1942-1945 New housing built for workers in the war effort includes Parkfairfax, where future presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford would later live as junior members of congress.
- 1946 Old Town becomes the nation's third Historic District, after New Orleans and Charleston.
- 1949 Alexandria celebrates its 200th anniversary. A commemorative 6-cent airmail stamp is issued to mark the event.
- 1952 Annexation of areas that were formerly part of Fairfax County, giving Alexandria its current shape. Areas south of the Interstate remain in Fairfax County, despite their Alexandria post-office addresses.
- 1955 Construction begins on the Capital Beltway and the Woodrow Wilson Bridge, crossing the Potomac River, is dedicated in 1961.
1959 Nine African American students enter formerly all-white public schools for the first time.
- 1961 Future rock star Jim Morrison of the band The Doors graduates from George Washington High School in Alexandria.
- 1961 Fort Ward, one of the largest Union forts in the Defenses of Washington, is restored by the City of Alexandria for the Civil War Centennial.
- 1966 Old Town Alexandria designated a National Historic Landmark.
- 1971 After desegregation, T.C. Williams High School wins state football championship and captures national fame in 2000 in the film, " Remember the Titans."
- 1974 Gerald Ford becomes U.S. President and serves his first 10 days while still living in his Alexandria home on Crown View Drive.
- 1974 The old Alexandria Naval Torpedo Stations reopens as the Torpedo Factory Art Center.
- 1975 Alexandria establishes the country’s first archaeological commission, leading to the development of the Alexandria Archaeology Museum.
- 1976 As part of the City’s bicentennial celebration, the City restores and opens Gadsby’s Tavern Museum and The Lyceum, Alexandria’s History Museum.
- 1983 King Street Metro station opens.
- 1984 Parker-Gray Historic District is established in an historically black neighborhood.
- 1999 Alexandria celebrates its 250th Anniversary.
- 2001 Alexandria emergency service personnel respond to terrorist attacks of September 11th at the nearby Pentagon.
- 2007 Archaeologists recover a 13,000-year old Clovis spear point discarded by a Native American hunter. The stone tool is the earliest evidence of human presence in present-day Alexandria.
- 2011-2015 Alexandria commemorates the Civil War sesquicentennial.
- 2012-2015 Alexandria commemorates the 200th anniversary of the War of 1812.
- 2016 Alexandria commemorates the 75th anniversary of American entry in World War II.
Alexandria commemorates the 100th anniversary of World War I.
- 1907: Souvenir Virginia Tercentennial 1607-1907 of Historic Alexandria, Virginia (1907). Souvenir Virginia Tercentennial 1607-1907 of Historic Alexandria, Virginia, by Andrew J. Wedderburn (Alexandria, 1907). An illustrated guide to Alexandria buildings and neighborhoods. This book was created as a promotional piece with the support of Alexandria's then-new Chamber of Commerce, founded the same year, and attempted to tie into the statewide excitement surrounding the 300th anniversary of Jamestown. Today, it serves as a useful snapshot of the community, showing Alexandria as a busy city of small industries, shops, and regional commerce, even though its once famous port had long since declined.
- 1923: The Romance of Historic Alexandria. A Thrilling Narrative of Events founded on Facts and Fiction (1923): by Jackson Eugene Beauharnais. An early guidebook to Alexandria, available at the Alexandria Library, Local Special Collections.
Historic Homes and Landmarks. Illustrated booklet by Mary Lindsay
- 1949: 200 Years of Progress. A booklet created for Alexandria's Bicentennial in 1949.
- 1956: City of Alexandria Annual Report.
- 1960: City of Alexandria, Virginia. Hometown of George Washington and Robert E. Lee. Illustrated report published by the City of Alexandria.
- 1963: City of Alexandria Master Plan. Prepared by Department of Planning and Urban Renewal.
- 1970: Know Your City. A Study of City Government. Prepared by the League of Women Voters.
The African American Community
Prior to the famous Woolworth counter sit-in in Greensboro, North Carolina, five courageous African-American youths staged the first deliberate and planned sit-in at the Alexandria “public” Library on August 21, 1939.
Alexandria's black population increased during and after the Civil War, as part of the Northern Migration. In the 20th century, African Americans formed vibrant communities, with social life often centered around their churches. As blacks across America fought for Civil Rights, the country's first Sit-Down Strike took place at the Alexandria Library in 1939. The historic African American community known as Uptown was designated as the Parker-Gray District in 1984, and in 2008 was approved for listing on the Virginia Landmarks Register. It is expected to join the Old and Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places.
- America's First Sit-Down Strike: The 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In. Lesson Plan: Teaching with Historic Places in Alexandria, Virginia.
- Robinson Library: The Robert H. Robinson Library was originally constructed in 1940 following a sit-in at the segregated Alexandria Library. It is now part of the Alexandria Black History Museum.
- Black Education and Parker-Gray School
- Style and Identity: Black Alexandria in the 1970s. Portraits by Horace Day.
- Fort Ward Park African American community. Fort Ward Park was the location of an African American neighborhood. Archaeologists and historians are helping neighbors to bring this history to light.
- Roberts Memorial United Methodist Church, 150th Anniversary, 1982. This booklet provides a history of the church at 604 S. Washington Street, and its congregation, and includes photographs of many members of the community who participated in the anniversary celebrations.
Recollections and Oral History
First Lady Betty Ford (center) at Gadsby's Tavern, October 16, 1975. To her right is Bill Adam, who was curator of the museum at the time. The Fords lived at Parkfairfax from 1951-1955, and at 514 Crown View Drive from 1955 until they moved to the Whitehouse in 1974. (Courtesy Gerald Ford Library.)
The Alexandria Legacies Project is one way that Alexandrians hare their memories of life in Alexandria.
- Read transcriptions of more than eight oral history interviews conducted with long-time City residents by the Alexandria Legacies Project.
- Gerald R. Ford in Alexandria: Remembering our 38th President. Read reminiscences from Hood Barringer, from the Gerald Ford Oral History Project.
- Immigrant Alexandria. Oral histories of those representing different ethnic groups in the post-1970 immigrant communities of Alexandria were conducted in 2014-2015, with support from the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities.
- A Nostalgic Account of Growing up in Old Town in the 1950's, by Stephen Williams, M.D. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Fall 2002.
- A Decade that Shaped My Life, by A. James Rudin, D.D., The Alexandria Chronicle, Fall 2015.
- The Five Payne Brothers: An Alexandria Family and Their Service, an online exhibit produced by The Lyceum, tells the story of the Payne Brothers, their life in Alexandria, and their service during World War II.
Urban Renewal, 400 Block King Street, north side. Gadsby's Tavern can be seen at the center of the photo, with City Hall across the street, on the right.
By the 1920s, Alexandria was a quiet little southern town, but one with an especially rich heritage. Seeking to capitalize on this history and tap into the stream of tourists who traveled through Alexandria regularly on their way to Mount Vernon, local American Legion Post 24 purchased the old City Hotel as their headquarters and museum. The building had once been known as Gadsby's Tavern and had served a distinguished clientele including George Washington, the Marquis de Lafayette and Thomas Jefferson. Fired by the same spirit that was guiding the restorations at Colonial Williamsburg, Gadsby's Tavern reopened to the public with a colonial costume ball in 1932, the bicentennial of Washington's birth. The American Legion's purchase and restoration of Gadsby's Tavern was part of the fledgling preservation movement beginning to take hold in Alexandria that later blossomed in the face of urban renewal in the 1960s.
During the mid-1960s, the City's leadership began to remake the old colonial port into a modern city as many of the oldest parts of town were redeveloped. Market Square, where public markets were held since the town's founding, was cleared of 18th- and 19th-century buildings except for the 1872 City Hall, and the block was excavated to hide a parking garage under the new Square. Across South Royal Street, most of the block was similarly demolished and excavated for a series of boutiques and retail stores named Tavern Square (the development being adjacent to Gadsby's Tavern.) As the wrecking balls swung, Alexandria's preservation movement grew, forcing city government to protect some of the community's landmarks. Among the buildings saved and restored during this period were The Torpedo Factory Art Center, The Lyceum and the Carlyle House, which joined Gadsby's Tavern in undergoing extensive renovations in time for the nation's Bicentennial in 1976.
The Old and Historic District, designated in 1946, was the third historic district in the United States, after Charleston and New Orleans. The historic African American community known as Uptown was designated as the Parker-Gray District in 1984, and in 2008 was approved for listing on the Virginia Landmarks Register. It is expected to join the Old and Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places.
- The Beginnings of Historic Preservation in Alexandria-Moving Toward the Creation of the Old and Historic District, by Peter H. Smith. Alexandria Chronicles, Alexandria Historical Society, Winter 1996.
- The George Washington Memorial Parkway --A Statement of Policy on Memorial Character by the Old and Historic Alexandria District Board of Architectural Review, by Peter H. Smith. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Summer 1999.
- Recollections of a Board of Architectural Review Member, by Thomas Hulfish III. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Summer 1998.
- Oral Histories of the Historic Preservation Movement: Hood Barringer , C. Richard Bierce , Robert Montague, III and Marian Van Landingham.
- The Parker-Gray District: Examining a Local Historic District a Generation Later, by Catherine K. Miliaras, Alexandria Chronicles, Alexandria Historical Society, Spring (1), 2015.
National Register Historic District: Town of Potomac. The Town of Potomac was incorporated In 1908, joining the neighborhoods of Del Ray and St. Elmo. It was annexed by the City of Alexandria in 1930. The Town of Potomac was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.
The Old and Historic District was designated in 1946 to preserve Alexandria's early architecture, but, since that time, 20th century neighborhoods have also been recognized for their historic and architectural significance.
- Del Ray and the Town of Potomac. St. Elmo and Del Ray, two subdivisions platted in 1894, were joined together in 1908 to form the incorporated town of Potomac.
- Fairlington. Fairlington is on the National Register of Historic Places, as a notable example of community planning and publicly financed housing built for defense workers and their families during World War II. Learn more about this history of this community, from the Fairlington Historical Society.
- History of Parkfairfax. Parkfairfax was built during 1941 to 1943 to help alleviate the acute housing shortages resulting from the depression and World War II.
- A Study in Decentralized Living: Parkfairfax, Alexandria, Virginia, by Laura L. Bobeczko. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Spring 1997
- Rosemont, located northwest of the Old and Historic District of Alexandria, adjacent to Alexandria's Union Station, is an unusually intact example of an early-twentieth century middle-class trolley suburb.
The final torpedo made at the Naval Torpedo Station, Alexandria, in 1945
- A History of Lloyd House, Part II History of the Structure: 1833 - 1918. Lloyd House Enters the 20th Century: 1918 - 1956, by Timothy Dennée. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Spring/Summer 2004.
- The Torpedo Factory: The Torpedo Factory, built in 1918, was originally the U.S. Naval Torpedo Station. It now houses the Torpedo Factory Art Center, open to the public. Read an Oral History from Marian Van Landingham , founder of the Torpedo Factory Art Center.
- Fire Stations. Photos from the Charles Sampson Collection. Online Exhibit from the Alexandria Library, Local History/Special Collections. The photos include many wonderful examples of past fire stations, engines, and firemen, from the 19th and 20th centuries.
- Potomac Yard: History and Archaeology of the former rail switching yard. Oral Histories of Potomac Yard employees, Heritage Trail signs, and archaeological reports.
- The History of Potomac Yard: A Transportation Corridor through Time. By Francine W. Bromberg, Alexandria Archaeology. North Potomac Yard Small Area Plan. See Appendix III, page 103.
- The Alexandria Union Station, by Al Cox, AIA. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Winter 1996.
- Flying the Capitol Way, Part I, by Kristin B. Lloyd. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Winter 1997
- Flying the Capital Way, Part II, by Kristin B. Lloyd. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Spring 1998.
- Before the Beltway; Streetcar Lines in Northern Virginia. Photographic exhibit from the Alexandria Library, Local History/Special Collections. Streetcar lines were in operation from 1892 until the 1940s.
- Beachcombers Restaurant. O Prince Street, by Diane Riker. This building was originally the Beachcombers Restaurant. Built on stilts over the water, it was once one of Alexandria's finest restaurants
Bicentennial parade passes Gadsby's Tavern, 1976.
- 1907 - Souvenir Virginia Tercentennial 1607-1907 of Historic Alexandria, Virginia (1907) : Souvenir Virginia Tercentennial 1607-1907 of Historic Alexandria, Virginia, by Andrew J. Wedderburn (Alexandria, 1907). An illustrated guide to Alexandria buildings and neighborhoods. This book was created as a promotional piece with the support of Alexandria's then-new Chamber of Commerce, founded the same year, and attempted to tie into the statewide excitement surrounding the 300th anniversary of Jamestown. Today, it serves as a useful snapshot of the community, showing Alexandria as a busy city of small industries, shops, and regional commerce, even though its once famous port had long since declined.
- 1949 - 200 Years of Progress: A booklet created for Alexandria's Bicentennial.
- 1949 - Remembering Alexandria's Bicentennial -- Philately, by Timothy J. Dennée. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Spring 1999.
- 2011-2015 - Civil War 150th Commemoration: Witness to war and reunion, Alexandria's place in Civil War history is truly unique. The occupation of Alexandria by Union troops forever changed the social, cultural and economic fabric of the old seaport town. For four years Alexandria was an occupied city; enduring the longest military occupation by Union troops of any town during the conflict. The Office of Historic Alexandria is commemorating the Civil War Sesquicentennial through special events and exhibits, and by pulling together resources on the history of Alexandria in the Civil War.
- 2012-1015 - War of 1812 Bicentennial: The War of 1812 and the five-day occupation of Alexandria by British forces in 1814, had a profound effect on the town and its economy. Threatened with an invasion and with insufficient forces to defend the city, Alexandria’s Common Council surrendered to the British without resistance. The city avoided being burned, but the British looted stores and warehouses. Learn more about how the War and occupation affected Alexandria, and view some artifacts from the Historic Alexandria collections.
The Old City Market
James Oliver Petitt of southern Fairfax County in front of his stall at the old City Market. One of three generations to operate the stall.
You can still shop at the Old Town Farmer's Market on Saturday mornings, year round.
The Ramsey Homes: An Example of Early Public Housing in Alexandria
The Ramsey Homes, a former public housing project on North Patrick Street, is being replaced by a mixed income community with low-income and market-rate units. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires actions to assess historic resources and to mitigate or resolve adverse effects. The documentation of the history and architecture of the Ramsey Homes was undertaken as part of this historic preservation process.
The Ramsey Homes were constructed in 1941-1942 by the United States Housing Authority (USHA) as permanent housing for African-American defense workers. Ramsey Homes housed 15 defense workers and their families during World War II and the Korean War. This was part of a large Federal plan to provide 26,206 units of wartime housing in the Washington metropolitan area.
Toward the end of the Korean War, the Alexandria Redevelopment Housing Authority (ARHA) purchased the Ramsey Homes from the Federal Public Housing Authority, and the buildings served as affordable housing units from 1953 until 2018.