Generally, the Judges of the Juvenile Court hear cases where allegations have been made concerning the following:
- Juvenile delinquency and juvenile traffic violations
- Children in need of services or supervision
- Children who may have been subject to abuse, neglect or abandonment
- Adults accused of child abuse or neglect or of criminal offenses against household or family members or children
- Disputes concerning the support, visitation, or custody of children
- Disputes concerning the support of a spouse
- Children in foster care, entrustments, court-ordered rehabilitative services and consent for certain medical treatments for children
- Termination of Parental Rights
- Emancipation of a child
- Paternity of a child
In Virginia, a child is defined as a person under 18 years of age.
Because much of the work of the Juvenile Court involves children, the Court has a legal duty to protect the confidentiality of many of its hearings. As such the general public is not permitted to be in the courtroom for many of the hearings that take place and is not normally permitted access to court records involving children. There are certain limited exceptions, mostly relating to allegations of serious delinquent acts by juveniles, where the Juvenile Court can release information to the public.