ALL Alexandria Resolution Annotations Page

Annotations for the ALL Alexandria: Committing to Race and Social Equity resolution, adopted by Alexandria City Council on Jan. 23, 2021. The following provides additional information, further explanation, and educational purposes in reference to language and terminology used in the resolution.

Page updated on Mar 25, 2021 at 3:33 PM

ALL Alexandria Resolution No. 2974 Annotations

On January 23, 2021, the Alexandria City Council issued the ALL Alexandria resolution acknowledging Alexandria’s horrific history; recognizing the need and importance of community involvement to identify, develop and implement policies in the pursuit of equitable outcomes; and resolving to adopt practices and policies centered on creating and ensuring racial and social equity.

Below are annotations from the resolution provided by the Race and Social Equity Office for additional information, further explanation, and educational purposes. These resources are intended to help you further your experience, and we hope it will be helpful on your journey to learning more about race and social equity. The goal is to increase knowledge and understanding and engage people as we begin our racial equity journey as a community. Visit for more information about the ALL Alexandria race and equity commitment.

NOTE: Some of the content included may be emotionally and intellectually challenging. As we work toward addressing race and equity in Alexandria, we will be exposed to difficult, honest and uncomfortable information. However, our intention is to create a space where we can all engage bravely, thoughtfully and empathetically in conversations around race.

 Alexandria's history

  • Franklin and Armfield Office – "The Franklin and Armfield Slave Pen at 1315 Duke Street was one of the largest slave trading companies in the country and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places."

Our country's past

  • The Story of Race (video) – "How did the idea of race begin in America? The answer can be found in the long and complex history of Western Europe and the United States. It is that history – influenced by science, government and culture – that has shaped our ideas about race."
  • The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross : an unprecedented journey through African Americans history (video) – "Explore with Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr., the evolution of the African-American people, as well as the multiplicity of cultural institutions, political strategies, and religious and social perspectives they developed-forging their own history, culture and society against unimaginable odds."
  • The Making of Asian America: A History (audiobook) – "In the past fifty years, Asian Americans have helped change the face of America and are now the fastest growing group in the United States. The audio book tells the little-known history of Asian Americans and their role in American life, from the arrival of the first Asians in the Americas to the present-day."
  • Driving While Black: Race, Space and Mobility in America – Video OR Book

Systemic racism

Shoreline of the Potomac River

  • John Smith Map – "This map of colonial Virginia, attributed to Captain John Smith, one of the first English settlers, contains extraordinary geographic detail as well as the locations of Indian settlements."

Indigenous People

  • We Have a Story to Tell: Native Peoples of the Chesapeake Region – "The Native peoples of the Chesapeake Bay region were among the first in the Western Hemisphere to encounter European explorers and colonists. Their stories, however, have usually been told by others, and usually only when their history helps to shed light on the birth and early development of the English colonies and the United States."
  • An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States (book) – "The first history of the United States told from the perspective of indigenous peoples. Today in the United States, there are more than five hundred federally recognized Indigenous nations comprising nearly three million people, descendants of the fifteen million Native people who once inhabited this land."

Powhatan paramount chiefdom

  • Map of Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom – "A modern map shows the locations of various Indian groups in Tidewater Virginia that in 1607 constituted the Powhatan paramount chiefdom. "

Original victims

  • The "Indian Problem" (video) – "As American power and population grew in the 19th century, the United States gradually rejected the main principle of treaty-making—that tribes were self-governing nations—and initiated policies that undermined tribal sovereignty. For Indian nations, these policies resulted in broken treaties, vast land loss, removal and relocation, population decline, and cultural decimation."

Alexandria acknowledges its part in the domestic slave trade

  • History of Alexandria's African American Community – "Alexandria's African American history includes a vibrant free black population dating to the 18th century, one of the largest slave trading operations, and America's first Sit-Down Strike in the early days of the Civil Rights movement."

Jim Crow

  • A Brief History of Jim Crow – "Jim Crow laws were based on the theory of white supremacy and were a reaction to Reconstruction."
  • History of Jim Crow – "This special explores the deep-seated racism behind images that reflected Jim Crow - black face, Aunt Jemima, and many others."

Known lynchings

Joseph McCoy

Benjamin Thomas

  • In Memoriam: Benjamin Thomas August 8, 1899 – "Around midnight on August 8,1899, a 16-year-old African American teenager named Benjamin Thomas was lynched in Alexandria, Virginia. A white terror mob comprised of Alexandria citizens attacked the city jail on St. Asaph Street, and Benjamin Thomas was dragged half a mile to the southwest corner of King and Fairfax streets, opposite Market Square."

Peaceful efforts

Unequitable practices

  • Brown v. Board and the Desegregation of Alexandria City Public Schools – "2019 marked the 65th anniversary of the landmark Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, in which the court unanimously ruled that racial segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional."
  • Brown v. Board: 60 Years On – The Action that Took 14 Years to Complete – "On a damp grey morning at 8:15 a.m. on February 10, 1959, three African-American children who had previously been bussed across town each morning to attend all-black Lyles-Crouch walked into the all-white William Ramsay School. Their actions were the start of a long slow process to desegregate Alexandria City Public Schools that took another 14 years to complete."
  • Parker-Gray School: 100 Years Old – "On the morning of Sept. 8, 1920, Parker-Gray Elementary School opened its doors. It would later become the first high school in Alexandria to educate African American children and has left an indelible mark on our city. "
  • History of the Parker-Gray Schools – "Parker-Gray School opened in 1920 teaching grades 1 thru 8. In 1936 it graduated its first high school class."
  • Carver Nursery School/Post 129 – "This modest, wood-frame building has played an important role in the segregated history of Alexandria."



  • The Color of Law – Online Alexandria Library search results
  • Segregated by Design – "Examine the forgotten history of how our federal, state and local governments unconstitutionally segregated every major metropolitan area in America through law and policy."


  • The Color of Law – Online Alexandria Library search results
  • Segregated by Design – "Examine the forgotten history of how our federal, state and local governments unconstitutionally segregated every major metropolitan area in America through law and policy."
  • The Disturbing History of the Suburbs – "Redlining: the racist housing policy from the Jim Crow era that still affects us today."





Legal system

Community-centered, Community-driven strategies


Racial inequities

Diverse community


Oppression – ALL Alexandria Race and Social Equity Definitions

Authors Robin DiAngelo and Ibram X. Kendi on how to become aware of privilege


  • Intersectionality – "Now more than ever, it's important to look boldly at the reality of race and gender bias -- and understand how the two can combine to create even more harm. Kimberlé Crenshaw uses the term 'intersectionality' to describe this phenomenon; as she says, if you're standing in the path of multiple forms of exclusion, you're likely to get hit by both."



Racial Equity



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