|The Marshall House Incident, Harper's Weekly, June 15, 1861.|
The following resources provide some insight into the War and its effect on Alexandria and its inhabitants.
Explore Alexandria's Civil War Sites
- Visit Fort Ward Museum & Historic Site
- Visit the the Contrabands and Freedmen's Cemetery Memorial
- Learn about Alexandria's Union Hospitals
- Explore Alexandria's Civil Defenses of Washington by bike
- Download the Alexandria Civil War iPhone app
- Watch the 2016-2017 PBS series Mercy Street, set at Mansion House Hospital in Alexandria
- Learn about real Alexandria residents portrayed in the drama "Mercy Street," Emma Green and Frank Stringfellow: Alexandria's Civil War Sweethearts.
- On a lighter note, check out the Peeps Diorama, "An Event of ePeep Proportions."
Alexandria's Civil War History and Archaeology
- Civil War Crimean Ovens. Courtesy Alexandria Archaeology Museum.
- Civil War Hospitals in Alexandria. This resource, compiled by staff and volunteers at the Alexandria Archaeology Museum, includes historical information on Alexandria's Civil War hospitals and rest camps, first-person accounts, historic images, Quartermaster maps, and images of the sites today.
- Discovering the Decades: 1860s
- Highlights from the Collection: The Civil War. Courtesy Alexandria Archaeology Museum
- The Confederate Statue. Brochure (2002) on the history of the statue Appomattox, in the intersection of Washington and Prince streets.
- The History of Fort Ward
- Site Reports from Alexandria Archaeology
Alexandria During the Civil War: First Person Accounts
- Alexandria During the Civil War: First Person Accounts.
- Antebellum Reminiscences of Alexandria, Virginia. Extracted from the Memoirs of Mary Louisa Slacum Benham.
- Diaries of Julia Wilbur, March 1860 to July 1866. Transcribed by Alexandria Archaeology, 2013-2014, from the originals in the Quaker Collection, Haverford College, PA. Julia Wilbur, a relief worker from Rochester, NY, came to Alexandria during the Civil War. She kept a detailed diary from the 1840s through her death in 1895. Alexandria Archaeology's transcriptions focus on the period right before, during, and after the War.
- Traveler's Accounts of the Historic Alexandria Waterfront (See pages 92-100 of the PDF).
Slavery and Freedom
- "A Loathsome Prison:" Slave Trading in Antebellum Alexandria. Lesson Plan: Teaching with Historic Places in Alexandria, Virginia.
- The Alexandria Slave Pen: The Archaeology of Urban Captivity, by Janice G. Artemel, Elzabeth A. Crowell and Jeff Parker. Engineering-Science, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1987
- Archaeology of the Bruin Slave Jail (Site 44AX0172), by Lisa Kraus, John Bedell and Charles LeeDecker. The Louis Berger Group, Inc., Washington, D.C., 2010.
- Fighting for Freedom: Black Union Soldiers of the Civil War. Courtesy Fort Ward Museum
- Volunteers for Freedom: Black Civil War Soldiers in Alexandria National Cemetery Part I, by Edward A. Miller, Jr. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Fall 1988.
- Volunteers for Freedom: Black Civil War Soldiers in Alexandria National Cemetery Part II, by Edward A. Miller, Jr. Historic Alexandria Quarterly, Winter 1988.
- Alexandria Contrabands & Freedmen Cemetery. Alexandria Contrabands & Freedmen Cemetery served as the burial place for about 1,800 African Americans who fled to Alexandria to escape from bondage during the Civil War. A Memorial opened in 2014 on the site of the cemetery, to honor the memory of the Freedmen, the hardships they faced, and their contributions to the City.
Additional Resources on the Civil War in Alexandria
- From the Alexandria Library, Special Collections
- From the Carlyle House
- From the Friends of Freedmen's Cemetery
- From the National Trust for Historic Preservation
- From the Alexandria Historical Society
The Special Collections section is located in the Barrett Library at 717 Queen Street. The library holds many interesting resources pertaining to the Civil War in Alexandria. Their Civil War holdings include history of all aspects of the conflict, with a focus on the Confederacy. Resources. This includes Virginia regimental histories; War of the Rebellion Official Record (the "OR"), which reproduces government documents dealing with the war; and information about Alexandria during the war.
Contact Special Collections about the following Civil War resources, and more.
- Oath of Allegiance in Virginia, 1862-1865. Index of those who signed an oath of allegiance to the Union during and after the Civil War.
- Civil War Era Burials - Alexandria National Cemetery. Index to 3,600 Federal burials.
- Notes on locating a Confederate ancestor. Guide to locating your ancestor.
- Battlefields of Virginia. The May 1887 excursion of the Civil War veterans of the 57th and 58th Massachusetts to the Civil War Battlefields of Virginia as documented in photos by Fred H. Foss.
- "...the frown of the citizens..." Notes and Images about the Civil War Occupation of Alexandria.
- Generals of the Confederacy. Thirty images, carte-de-visites (and more) from the White, Wellford, Taliaferro, and Marshall Families Collection.
- "Give oceans of love to all..." The prisoner-of-war letters of Brigadier General Montgomery Dent Corse, CSA, 17th Virginia Infantry to his wife, Elizabeth Beverley, along with his commission as Colonel, Active Volunteer Forces of Virginia, May 17, 1861, and his Oath of Allegiance to the United States of America, July 24, 1865. Selected from the Montgomery Dent Corse Collection.
- The Occupation of Alexandria, VA during the Civil War. On May 23, 1861, Virginia voted to become the eighth state to secede from the Union. James Green (the son of the James Green who built the hotel in front of Carlyle House), who was living at the carlyle House at the time, described the event in his diary as "the most quiet election I ever saw in town." (Carlyle House Docent Dispatch, May 2011)
- Nurses, Spies and Soldiers: The Civil War at Carlyle House. The Mansion House Hospital, which incorporated the 1753 home of John Carlyle and the large building in front of it, was a place of strife and suffering during the Civil War. (Carlyle House Docent Dispatch, March 2011)
Visit the Friends of Freedmen's Cemetery for more historical resources, including:
- Slaves in the Alexandria Jail, 1861. National Republican of January 20, 1862
- Convalescent Soldiers in L'Ouverture Hospital "Express Our Views" on Burial Location.
- Brief History of Alexandria's Freed People and of Freedmen's Cemetery
- The Contraband Hospital and Alexandria's Freedmen's Aid Workers
- Record of Deaths and Burials Among the Freedmen in Alexandria, Virginia ("The Gladwin Record")
- The Contraband of America and the Road to Freedom. This video, narrated by staff of the Alexandria Black History Museum, tells the story of Contrabands in Alexandria, and features Shiloh Baptist Church and the Freedmen's Cemetery.
The Alexandria Chronicle and the earlier Alexandria History Magazine are publications of the Alexandria Historical Society. The following articles pertaining to the Civil War in Alexandria can be found on the AHS website.
The Alexandria Chronicle
- The First Union Civil War Martyr: Elmer Ellsworth, Alexandria, and the American Flag, by Marc Leepson, Fall 2011
- The Civil War Comes to Duke Street, by Ted Pulliam, Fall 2011 (see page 5)
- "This Long Agony": A Test of Civilian Loyaties in an Occupied City, by Diane Riker, Spring #2 2011
- Volusia: A Farm and the People Who Lived There During the Civil War, by Amy Bertch, Spring #1 2011
- "Hessians in our midst:" Provost Duty in Alexandria 1861-62, the 88th Pennsylvania Volunteers, by Michael Ayoub, Fall 2008
- "Aunt Lindy" - A Former Slave Who Settled in Alexandria after the Civil War, by T. Michael Miller, Summer/Fall 2002 (see page 4)
- Mary Custis Lee--17th Virginia Regiment Chapter, UDC, Honors the Six Soldiers Buried in Its Confederate Plot at Bethel Cemetery in Alexandria , by Rebecca Hatchell Kusserow, Spring 2002 (see page 11)
- Kate Hooper: Alexandria's "Angel of Mercy" , by T. Michael Miller, Spring 2002 (see page 19)
- Edgar Warfield-Alexandria's Last Surviving Confederate Soldier, by T. Michael Miller, Spring 2001
- A Heroine on the Homefront: My Mother's Experience during the Civil War, by Ada Warfield Kurtz, 1907. Spring 2001 (see page 16)
- A View of Mr. Lincoln, by T. Michael Miller, Spring 2001 (see page 16)
- The Washington and Prince Street Military Prisons-Alexandria's Andersonville?, by T. Michael Miller, Winter 1999/2000
- The Anthony Burns Affair: Alexandria, Virginia Locals at the Center of National Debate over the Fugitive Slave Act during Violent Incidents in Boston, Massachusetts, by Cliff Johns, Fall 1999
- Vignettes from the Pages of the Alexandria Gazette: A Lone Indian. Alexandrians Used as Human Hostages on U.S. Military Railroad Trains. Negro Regiment Raised in Alexandria, Fall 1999 (see page 18)
- Alexandria and Northern Virginia in the Early National Period: The Paradox of Liberalism in a Slave Society, by A. Glenn Crothers, Summer 1999
- Civil War Vignettes, compiled by T. Michael Miller, Summer 1999 (see page 18)
- President Abraham Lincoln Reviews the Troops Near Shuter's Hill, by T. Michael Miller, Summer 1999 (see page 26)
- Recollections of the Early War between the States in Alexandria, Virginia,by A. J. Wickliffe, 1880, Spring 1997
- "Bandages and Broken Bones:" The Civil War Diary of Anne Reading, Introduction by Margaret Garrett Irving, Summer 1995
- United States Civil War Military Hospitals in Occupied Alexandria, Virginia, Summer 1995 (see page 21)
- President Lincoln's Railroad Car, by Robert Slusser, Spring 1995
Alexandria History Magazine
- A Chronicle of the 17th Virginia Regiment-The Reminiscences of Col. Arthur Herbert, by T. Michael Miller, 1984
- Beleaguered Alexandria, 1861-1865, by James G. Barber, 1981
- "The Town Is Took:" McClellen's Troops on Seminary Hill by Cazenove G. Lee, 1981 (see page 11)
- Cazenove Lee Remembers Robert E. Lee, 1981 (see page 19)
- Battery Heights, 44AX186: Fiedel, Stuart J. and Bryan Corle,
Results of Archeological Survey Battery Heights, Alexandria. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 2001.
- Bontz Site/West End Village, United States Military Railroad Complex, 44AX103 and 105 (1989 Phase II investigation): Cromwell, T. Ted, A Phase II Cultural Resource Evaluation of Duke Street (Route 236), Between the 1100 and 1900 Blocks, in the City of Alexandria, Virginia. James Madison University, Archæological Research Center, Harrisonburg, Virginia, 1989.
- Bontz Site/West End Village, Spring Garden Farms/United States Military Railroad Complex, 44AX103 and 105 (1989 Phase III investigation): Cromwell, T. Ted and Timothy J. Hills, The Phase III Mitigation of the Bontz Site (44AX103) and the United States Military Railroad Station (44AX105) located on the South Side of Duke Street (Route 236) in the City of Alexandria, Virginia. James Madison University Archaeological Research Center, Harrisonburg, Virginia, 1989. Appendices, Public Summary.
- Bush Hill, 44AX111: Gardner, William M. and Gwen Hurst, A Phase IA Background and Documentary Study of Three Properties at 2201 Eisenhower Avenue and 2310 and 2318 Mill Road, Alexandria, Virginia. Thunderbird Archeological Associates, Inc., Woodstock, Virginia, 2002.
- Bush Hill, 44AX111: Gardner, William M. and Gwen Hurst,
Phase IA Documentary Study of 10.67 Acres at 4840 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia. Thunderbird Archeological Associates, Inc., Woodstock, Virginia, 1999.
- Custom Homes: Walters, Patrick and Michael Clem, A Phase I Archaeological Survey of 12 Lots on Taft Avenue and Donelson Street and Adjacent Stream Restoration Area, City of Alexandria, Virginia. Cultural Resources, Inc., Frederick, MD, 2008. Public Summary.
- Episcopal High School Faculty Housing, 44AX200: Balicki, Joseph, Kerri Holland, Bryan Corle, Archaeological Evaluation and Resource Management Plan for Episcopal High School Faculty Housing, 1200 Quaker Lane, Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 2006. Public Summary
- Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company (2007 investigation): Bryant, Tammy, Documentary Study of the 1300 Block of Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia. Thunderbird Archaeology, Gainesville, Virginia, 2007. Public Summary.
- Fort Ward, 44AX90: Larrabee, Edward McM., Fort Ward, Alexandria, Virginia: Exploratory Excavation of the Northwest Bastion, 1961.
- Franklin and Armfield Slave Pen/Alexandria Hospital, 44AX75: Artemel, Janice G., Elizabeth A. Crowell and Jeff Parker, The Alexandria Slave Pen: The Archaeology of Urban Captivity. Engineering-Science, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1987.
- 1400 Janney's Lane, 44AX191: Jirikowic, Christine, Gwen J. Hurst and Tammy Bryant, Phase I Archeological Investigation at 1400 Janney's Lane, Alexandria, Virginia. Thunderbird Archeological Associates, Inc., Woodstock, Virginia, 2004. Public Summary
- Keith's Wharf/Battery Cove/Ford's Landing/"Old Ford Plant," 44AX119: Artemel, Janice G. Elizabeth Crowell, Donald A. Hull and Dennis Knepper, A Phase IIA Archaeological Study, Old Ford Plant Site, Alexandria, Virginia. Appendices. Engineering-Science, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1988.
- Keith's Wharf/Battery Cove/Ford's Landing/"Old Ford Plant," 44AX119: Cheek, Charles D. and Cecile G. Glendening,
A Phase I Archaeological Survey of the Old Ford Plant Property, City of Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 1986.
- Keith's Wharf/Battery Cove/Ford's Landing/"Old Ford Plant," 44AX119: Engineering-Science, Inc., 1993 Maritime Archaeology at Keith's Wharf and Battery Cove (44AX119): Ford's Landing, Alexandria, Virginia Chapters I-VI, Chapters VII-X, Appendices Washington, D.C., 1993.
- L'Ouverture Hospital/Shiloh Baptist Church: Traum, Sarah, Joseph Balicki and Brian Corle, A Documentary Study, Archeological Evaluation and Resource Management Plan for 1323 Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia, 2007. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA. Public Summary.
- 1226 North Pegram Street, 44AX198: Balicki, Joseph, Kerri Holland, Bryan Corle and Lynn B. Jones, Documentary Study and Archaeological Investigation, 1226 North Pegram Street and Polk Avenue (44AX198), Alexandria, Virginia, John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 2008.
- Potomac Yard: Walker, Mark K. and Marilyn Harper, Potomac Yard Inventory of Cultural Resources. Engineering Science, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1989.
- Potomac Yard/Potomac Yard Center: Adams, Robert M., Report on R, F & P Potomac Yard – Track Relocation Project. International Archaeological Consultants, Hayes, Virginia.
- Potomac Yard/Townes at Slater's Village: Cheek, Charles D. and Dana B. Heck, Archeological Observations at the Townes at Slater's Village Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 1996.
- 206 North Quaker Lane, 44AX193: Jirikowic, Christine, Gwen J. Hurst and Tammy Bryant, Phase III Archeological Investigations at 206 North Quaker Lane, Alexandria, Virginia. Thunderbird Archeological Associates, Inc., Woodstock, Virginia. Public Summary.
- Quaker Ridge, 44AX195: Balicki, Joseph, Bryan Corle, Charles Goode and Lynn Jones, Archaeological Investigations for Quaker Ridge Housing (44AX195), Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 2005. Public Summary.
- Spring Garden/Old Town Village (1999 investigation): Gardner, William M., Kimberly A. Snyder, Gwen Hurst, Joan M. Walker and John P. Mullen, Excavations at the Old Town Village Site, Corner of Duke and Henry Streets, Alexandria, Virginia: An Historic and Archeological Trek Through the 200 Year History of the Original Spring Garden Development, Volume I, and Volume II (Artifact Inventory). Thunderbird Archeological Associates, Inc., Woodstock, Virginia, 1999.
- Spring Garden/Southern Plaza/Old Town Village (1988 investigation):Seifert, Donna J., Ph.D., Cecile G. Glendening and Walton Owen, An Archæological Assessment of the Southern Plaza Project Area, Alexandria, Virginia, John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 1988.
- Stonegate Parcel C (1996 investigation): Adams, Robert M., Preliminary Archaeological Investigation of the Stonegate Development (Parcel C) West Braddock Road, City of Alexandria, Virginia. International Archaeological Consultants, Rawlins, Wyoming, 1996.
- Virginia Theological Seminary Faculty Housing, 44AX173a: Embrey, James W., Lynn D. Jones and Joseph Balicki, Documentary Study, Archaeological Evaluation and Resource Management Plan for Virginia Theological Seminary Faculty Housing, Alexandria, Virginia, John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, 2005. Public Summary - Artifact Inventory
- Weicking Property: Straka, Jeffrey and Michael Clem, Phase I Archaeological Survey and Monitoring of the Weicking Property, Lots 701, 702, 704, and 705 Arell Court, Alexandria, Virginia, KCI Technologies, Inc., Mechanicsburg, PA, 2006. Public Summary